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A Selected Reading List on Canadian Children's Literature and Illustrated Books

Historical Development and Contemporary State of Canadian Children's Books and Canadian Picturebooks

Association of Canadian Publishers. Book Publishing and Canadian Culture: A National Strategy for the 1990s. A Paper Prepared by the Association of Canadian Publishers. [Toronto: Association of Canadian Publishers], 1991.

This paper outlines the need for a national publishing strategy based on cooperation between the Canadian-owned publishing sector and the federal government. The key objectives of the strategy would be to increase the profitability and the domestic market share of the Canadian-owned publishing industry to ultimately ensure the even distribution of diverse and affordable Canadian cultural content to the Canadian readership. The premise of this initiative lies in the belief that the Canadian publishing industry is a cultural industry that needs federal support at the same level as the broadcasting and film industry to protect itself against the commercial interests of a more lucrative foreign publishing industry. The paper identifies the two major failings of existing federal publishing policy that are predicated on structural weaknesses in industry and government policy and recommends several fiscal, structural and legislative measures meant to revitalize the Canadian-owned publishing sector.


Association of Canadian Publishers. Canadian Books in School Libraries: Raising the Profile. A Research Report Prepared for the Association of Canadian Publishers. [Toronto: Association of Canadian Publishers], 2004.

This report, prepared upon interviews with teacher-librarians, teachers, library technicians, school principals, school district and ministry of education administrators from all Canadian provinces, as well as senior management representatives of the Canadian publishing and book trade industry, outlines the inadequate representation of Canadian books in school libraries nationwide and calls for redressing this situation in order to offer a better educational experience to schoolchildren of all levels and grades across Canada. Issues discussed in the report include: problems experienced in Canadian school libraries due to staff downsizing and reduced funding, the negative impact of existing literacy programs on the education of Canadian schoolchildren, the lack of Canadian books in school libraries, the importance of school books fairs in determining the collection level and content of the school library, the factors that influence collection decisions in school libraries, the role of "Tree Awards" in raising awareness about Canadian books for school libraries, and the role suppliers play in shaping school library collections. The report concludes by explaining the research methodology of this study. Excerpts from statements made by interviewees and statistical response tables and charts are included.


Association of Canadian Publishers. Children's Book Publishing in Canada: A Brief. [Prepared by Patricia Aldana]. Toronto: Association of Canadian Publishers, [1978].

This brief investigates the situation of the Canadian children's book market in Canada, analyzing the manufacturing and market conditions that have contributed to its underdevelopment and proposing a series of recommendations intended to alleviate the situations.


Association of Canadian Publishers. The Canadian Children's Book Market: Final Report. Prepared for the Association of Canadian Publishers by Evans and Company. [Toronto: Association of Canadian Publishers], November 2001.

This report presents the key findings of a quantitative study on the changes that have affected the Canadian children's book market from 1995 to 2000 with particular emphasis on the trends visible in its three major distribution channels, which are the public library system, the school library system and the retail sector. The report is divided in three parts. The first part contains data on the size of the Canadian children's book market; the second part reports on the publisher's survey and interview results, while the third part presents estimated sales by distribution channels. Overall, the study shows that sales have been flat overall at the same time as the library sector has experienced severe budget cuts, while the strong growth in the teen and non-fiction book market is cause for cautious optimism. The report also lists some key strategies that publishers may employ to invigorate the Canadian children's book market, including more timely deliveries and replenishments of out-of-stock items. Numerous statistical data, tables and charts are included, as well as nine appendices with additional calculation provided by Statistics Canada and CALUPL, and the different interview outlines and survey questions used in the study.


Baker, Deirdre, and Ken Setterington. A Guide to Canadian Children's Books. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 2004.

This vibrantly written guide to primarily contemporary and in-print English-language Canadian children's books is annotated with the parent and teacher in mind. From books for the very young to adolescent literature, over 500 titles are recommended and organized alphabetically by author. A range of indexes provides subject, author and title access.


Booth, David, ed. Writers on Writing: Guide to Writing and Illustrating Children's Books. Markham, Ont.: Overlea House, 1989.

Topics in this collection of essays by various Canadian writers and illustrators include creating picturebooks; writing for beginning readers, school-age children, and young adults; writing poetry for children; using other formats such as film and magazines; the roles of the publisher, editor and agent; and the importance of bringing books to children. These interesting essays shed light on the creators’ perspectives on, and techniques for, creating children’s books, and what they consider to be the important aspects of writing and/or illustrating children’s books.


Broten, Delores, and Peter Birdsall. Paper Phoenix: A History of Book Publishing in English Canada. Victoria: CANLIT, 1980.

This book presents factual information on the historical development of the book trade in English-speaking Canada. The first part of the book looks at the evolution of the book trade from the perspective of each of the major players involved, including the reader, the writer, the publisher, the agent/wholesaler, the retailer and the librarian. The second part focuses on particular structural elements that have shaped the Canadian book trade, such as copyright law and tariff protection, the exclusive agency system, the paperback format, the tendency towards corporate concentration and the attitude of the state towards literary publishing. The third part outlines the effects of geography, imperial pressures and state legislation on the Canadian book trade and suggests areas of future development. By adopting this multi-disciplinary approach, the authors have managed to highlight common developmental trends that arise from the complex interplay between often competing factors and that explain the lack of Canadian content in the domestic book market. An introduction is included.


Doolittle, Joyce, and Zina Barnieh. A Mirror of Our Dreams: Children and the Theatre in Canada, with a Chapter on Theatre in Québec by Hélène Beauchamp. Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1979.

The authors provide a history of the development of children’s theatre in Canada, and include a discussion of the changing concepts of childhood. Part one examines the state of children’s theatre in Canada; Part two reviews various Canadian companies; Part three provides a list of plays appropriate for young people, in English and in French. Includes index and select bibliography.


Edwards, Gail. “Talking Pics: Evaluating the Artistic Side of Picture Books.” CM: Canadian Materials 21, no. 2 (1993): 44-52.

In this article, Edwards argues for the importance of giving picturebook illustrations the respect and the attention they deserve. In reviewing a picturebook, she proposes, an equal amount of space should be devoted to commenting on the illustrations. Different sets of skills are required to critically analyze the quality of the text and the illustrations. Edwards provides a useful guide for evaluating picturebook illustrations. Includes an extensive bibliography of academic resources on picturebook illustration.


Edwards, Gail, and Judith Saltman. “Looking at Ourselves, Looking at Others: Multiculturalism in Canadian Children's Picturebooks in English.” Paper presented to the History of the Book in Canada's Open Conference for Volume III, Vancouver, November 2001.

This paper, presented to the 2001 History of the Book in Canada's Open Conference in Vancouver outlines the historical arc of children's picturebook publishing industry in Canada from the early 20th century to the turn of the 21st century. Saltman and Edwards put this history in economic, political, cultural and social contexts, using examples to illustrate the historical development and textual and visual analysis of cultural diversity in Canadian children's picturebooks. This paper is available online at: http://www.hbic.library.utoronto.ca/vol3edwardssaltman_en.htm.


Egoff, Sheila. "Children's Books in English." In Supplement to the Oxford Companion to Canadian History and Literature, edited by William Toye, 29-39. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1973.

In this detailed encyclopaedic entry, Egoff analyzes the particularities of Canadian children's literature, the changes this literary genre had undergone over the years, as well as its state of publication at the moment the entry went to print. Next, Egoff reviews in a wry pragmatic style the Canadian children's books that have come out over the period 1967-1972. The reviews highlight both positive and negative aspects of a book's text and illustrations, and are organized by year of publication, by age of the audience (from preschoolers to older children) and by literary genre (fiction, legends, poetry, history, and biography). The entry ends with a list of the winners of the Canadian Association of Children's Librarians Book-of-the-Year Medal from 1947 to1972, as well as the 1971 and 1972 winners for illustration of the Amelia Howard-Gibbon Award.


Egoff, Sheila. "Children's Literature (to 1960)." In Literary History of Canada Canadian Literature in English. 2nd edition. Edited by Carl F. Klinck. Vol. II, 134-142. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976.

This chapter outlines briefly the major developments in Canadian children's literature from its beginnings up to 1960 and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of specific Canadian childrens books from the perspective of what makes them uniquely Canadian. The reviewed books are classified by period of publication, from early beginnings to 1900-1925, 1925-1950 and 1950-1960.


Egoff, Sheila A., ed. One Ocean Touching: Papers from the First Pacific Rim Conference on Children's Literature. Metuchen, N.J. & London: The Scarecrow Press, 1979.

In 1976, the School of Librarianship at the University of British Columbia organized the first international conference on children's literature with a focus on countries from the Pacific Rim. The papers given at the conference are organized in two parts: an international and a Canadian composite. The entire volume is prefaced by the speech of Sheila Egoff, conference co-ordinator and the book's editor, with closing remarks by Roy Stokes, acting director of the UBC School of Librarianship. An index and short biographical notes of all contributors are included.


Egoff, Sheila. The Republic of Childhood: A Critical Guide to Canadian Children's Literature in English. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1967.

Egoff, Sheila. The Republic of Childhood: A Critical Guide to Canadian Children's Literature in English. 2d ed. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1975.

Sheila Egoff is a respected critic in the field of Canadian and international children’s literature. The Republic of Childhood was the first definitive guide to English-language Canadian children’s literature. This second edition includes discussions of selected titles that have been published since the 1967 publication of the first edition, as well as additional chapters focusing on new genres. Two chapters to note: “Illustration and Design” (pp. 255-270) and “Picture-books and Picture-Storybooks” (pp. 271-291). Includes an excellent bibliography.


Egoff, Sheila. "The Writing and Publishing of Canadian Children's Books in English." In Royal Commission on Book Publishing. Background Papers, 245-269. Province of Ontario: Queen's Printer and Publisher, 1972.

This background paper to the Royal Commission on Canadian book publishing industry seeks to answer the question of how well adults have managed so far to successfully write, select, review and use books with children and how well they are expected to do so in the future. In order to address these issues, the author of the report analyzes the real and perceived differences between writings for children vs. writing for adults, as well as the criteria against which children's books can be judged by delving into the standards debate in evaluation of children's books. Egoff compares the 1970s state of Canadian children's literature with its past historical situation; finally, she touches upon salient issues in the writing and publishing of Canadian children's literature, including the absence of a proper review mechanism for children's books, the lack of genuine Canadian content in existing children's literature and the absence of appropriate informational books and audiovisual material on this topic, the woes confronting children's authors and publishers in Canada, and the failure of school libraries to promote a healthy quality book market for Canadian children's literature. Egoff concludes the report by suggesting the appointment of a National Children's Librarian.


Egoff, Sheila, and Judith Saltman. The New Republic of Childhood: A Critical Guide to Children’s Literature in English. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1990.

This resource explores the growth of Canadian fiction for children by genre; for instance, realistic fiction, which includes outdoor survival stories, and native legends. In “Picture Books and Picture Storybooks” (pp. 131-182), the authors discuss the different characteristics of various types of picturebooks, as well as the trends and changes that have taken place over the years in Canadian picturebooks. Illustrative examples chosen from Canadian picturebooks accompany each discussion. The chapter ends with a description of various styles of illustration and the prominent Canadian artists who employ those techniques. There is an extensive bibliography, organized by the same genres discussed in each chapter. Indexed by title, author, and illustrator.


Egoff, Sheila, and Wendy K. Sutton. Once Upon a Time: My Life with Children's Books. Victoria: Orca Books, 2005.

In her posthumously published memoir, Sheila Egoff traces the story of her encounter with children's books from her first visit to a library to her library studies and professional career as a children's librarian to her teaching experience at the University of British Columbia School of Library, Archival & Information Studies. Egoff's memoir forcefully promotes the necessity of maintaining a vital public library service for children and children's literature traditions in Canada. The book is interspersed with memorable quotes from Egoff's books and with personal photographs of the author. The last section includes brief tributes to Egoff written by former students and colleagues. A list of all works by Sheila Egoff and an introduction by co-author Wendy K. Sutton are included.


Fasick, Adele, André Gagnon, Lynne Howarth, and Ken Setterington. Opening Doors to Children: Reading, Media and Public Library Use by Children in Six Canadian Cities . Regina, SK: Regina Public Library, 2005.

This resource reports on a survey of 3,486 children in grades four to seven in the cities of Halifax, Hamilton, Montréal, Regina, Toronto, and Vancouver. The survey included questions on their reading and media habits, and public library use. Following up a survey conducted in Regina in 1976 by the Regina Public Library, the Opening Doors project expands its population and criteria to include other Canadian cities and contemporary media technology. Includes sections on Library Use, Information Seeking Behaviours, Media in the Home Environment, and Reading Habits and Preferences. The results of focus groups with children in all cities but Montréal are given. Full colour graphical illustrations accompany statistical comparisons of: sites, genders, frequent and infrequent library users, and responses from the 1976 survey. Appendices include: French and English lists of children's book titles, French and English copies of the questionnaire and accompanying documentation. Contains insight into what genres children prefer to read, how they choose materials for fun and study, and media use habits at home and at the public library.


Fasick, Adele M., Margaret Johnston and Ruth Osler, eds. Lands of Pleasure: Essays on Lillian H. Smith and the Development of Children's Libraries. Metuchen, N.J., & London: The Scarecrow Press, 1990.

This collection of essays by Canadian children's librarians, writers and editors is a tribute to the Lillian H. Smith, whose major contributions to the development of children's librarianship in Canada and internationally resonate throughout the book. The monograph is divided into four parts. The first contains biographical studies of Lillian Smith's life and her founding of children's services at the Toronto Public Library, along with an analysis of the current requirements to educate children's librarian. The second centers on issues in the delivery of services for children in public libraries. The third focuses on evaluation of children's books according to Smith's principles. The final section discusses the intellectual and scholarly output of Smith's work and also contains an essay on special collections for children's material. An index is included.


Galway, Elizabeth A. From Nursery Rhymes to Nationhood: Children's Literature and the Construction of Canadian Identity. New York and London: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2008.

Part of the Children's Literature and Culture series edited by Jack Zipes, this monograph employs a historical methodology to explore the role that children's literature played at the end of the nineteenth and the early twentieth century in shaping a common sense of national identity in Canada. Galway analyzes the competing images developed by Canadian, British and US writers in the children's literature of the time, with a particular emphasis on the role that different historical narratives, the portrayal of various ethnicities and the distinct features of the Canadian natural environment have played in defining what it means to be Canadian. A Series Editor's Foreword, selected bibliographies of primary and secondary sources, and an index are included.


Haycock, Ken. Canadian Learning Resources: A Brief Summary of Recent Developments in School Resource Centres. Vancouver: Library Services Department, Vancouver School Board, 1977.

Prepared by Ken Haycock, at the time of publication, the Coordinator of the Library Services Department of the Vancouver School Board, this report summarizes the steps taken by that organization to encourage the selection of Canadian Learning resources based on program needs at the local school level during the 1976-77 school year. A detailed list of the steps is followed by expanded explanations of how and why each step was carried out. This report provides information to teacher-librarians, teachers, and public librarians on the selection, ordering, cataloguing, and promotion of Canadian materials for school resource centres. Includes three annotated lists of resources: sources for selecting current Canadian materials; sources for recommended Canadian materials, and resources, including some French language, for promoting a professional awareness of Canadian materials.


Haycock, Ken. The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Re-Investment. Toronto: Association of Canadian Publishers, 2003.

Haycock makes recommendations on how to improve Canada's school libraries, while demonstrating the crucial role played by teacher-librarians in student success at college or university. Evidence demonstrates that investment in school libraries and teacher-librarians results in the benefits educators seek from public school funding, including better student achievement, improved literacy, and enhanced readiness to succeed in a post-secondary environment. Haycock analyses the current context of cuts to Canada's school library budgets, teacher-librarians losing jobs or being reassigned, and collections becoming depleted. The neglect of teacher-librarians and school libraries has an impact on cultural identity through decreased selection of Canadian books.


Hudson, Aïda, and Susan-Ann Cooper, eds. Windows and Words: A Look at Canadian Children’s Literature in English. Reappraisals: Canadian Writers, no. 25. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 2003.

This collection of 17 academic conference papers is a selection drawn from the 1999 bilingual Canadian Children's Literature Symposium at the University of Ottawa. Three papers survey aspects of Canadian children's fiction in English, focusing on genre, Aboriginal adolescent fiction, and multiculturalism. Essays on individual authors and themes include reference to Lucy Maud Montgomery and book illustration. Contributions include essays by two Governor General's Award winning authors, Janet Lunn and Tm Wynne-Jones. Closing commentaries emphasize what is Canadian about literature for Canadian children. Includes bibliographical references.


Hurtig, Mel. Never Heard of Them…They Must Be Canadian. A Report of the Results of a Canadian Student Awareness Survey. Toronto: Canada Books, 1975.

This publication reports on a 1975 survey of Canadian high school students conducted by Mel Hurtig, Edmonton-based bookstore owner, publisher, and one-term Chairman of the Committee for an Independent Canada (CIC). It is a follow-up to a 1974 CIC survey of six Vancouver-area schools. It includes statistical results for both surveys and young people's comments from the 1975 survey. Hurtig's analysis is a sometimes caustic call to arms for all Canadians to reform curriculum to include the Canadian content that the children surveyed knew so little about. He recommends specific changes to the curriculum for Grades 10-13. Appendix of selected quotations from the Report of the Ontario Royal Commission on Book Publishing illustrates problems facing the Canadian educational book publishing industry.


Jobe, Ronald, and Paula Hart. Canadian Connections: Experiencing Literature with Children. Markham, Ont.: Pembroke Publishers, 1991.

Jobe and Hart have created an informative guide that demonstrates how educators, librarians, and others can help children make the most of their reading experiences, focusing on Canadian texts. The authors believe that literature enhances the maturation process by providing the opportunity to experience the perspective of other human beings. Literature also challenges and helps children develop their cognitive abilities. This invaluable book is filled with entertaining and educational activities to engage children in reading, with the goal of creating lifelong readers. The chapter on Elizabeth Cleaver is of particular use to people interested in her style of picturebook illustration and her use of collage.


Pomahac, G., and M. Richeson, eds. Publishing in Canada: Proceedings of the Institute of Publishing in Canada, June 27-30, 1971. Edmonton: School of Library Science, University of Alberta, 1972.

This document represents a collection of 11 papers given in 1972 by representatives of the Canadian publishing industry - members of the Institute of Publishing in Canada - to a group of professional associations - librarians, booksellers, educators, researchers, officials - interested in promoting the growth of the trade book sector in Canada. Topics include trade book publishing, editing, book production and design, copyright, marketing, author - publisher relations and the future of book publishing in Canada. A program list, an editorial comment, a discussion resume with closing remarks, and a list of participants is included.


Reimer, Mavis, ed. Home Words: Discourses of Children's Literature in Canada. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2008.

Edited by Mavis Reimer, this collection of essays from Canadian children’s literature scholars explores the ideas, values and attitudes that define “home” in Canadian children’s literature in selected Canadian French and English language texts, including texts by Aboriginal authors. Reimer begins by discussing different meanings attached to the term “home.” The following articles consider what home means for various Canadians, as defined by their native language, historical period, ethnocultural identity or combined features. The authors examine the meanings of home and personal, cultural and national identity in Canadian children's books. Includes index, extensive bibliography, and picturebook illustrations in colour plates.


Saltman, Judith. Modern Canadian Children's Books. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Saltman examines developments in Canadian picturebooks, fiction, oral traditions and poetry between 1975 and 1985. She reviews the emergence of modern Canadian literature for children, and then examines titles and trends. In the chapter “Picture-Books and Picture-Story Books” (pp. 18-56), Saltman argues that the picturebook is a concentrated form of Canadian children’s literature themes and culture, and stresses picturebook illustrations are particularly important in conveying Canadian imagery. Each chapter includes a bibliography of all titles cited. Indexed by author, title, and illustrator.


Saltman, Judith. “Once Upon a Time: Canadian Children’s Picture Book Illustration.” CCL: Canadian Children's Literature / Littérature canadienne pour la jeunesse 51 (1988): 51-65.

In this informative article, Saltman chronicles the historical development of the picturebook, with a special focus on Canadian publications. She provides a thorough analysis, commenting on the different styles, techniques, and media that the illustrators employ. She also discusses successful picturebooks, particularly the need for the text and the illustrations to be interdependent, with examples of successful Canadian picturebooks.


Saltman, Judith, and Gail Edwards. “Elizabeth Cleaver, William Toye, and Oxford University Press: Creating the Canadian Picturebook.” Papers of the Bibliographical Society of Canada 42, no. 1 (2004): 31-64.

This article pays homage to the unique working relationship between Canadian children's book illustrator Elizabeth Cleaver and William Toye, Oxford University Press Canada's editor, which resulted in an influential series of Canadian picturebooks in the 1960s and 1970s. Saltman and Edwards highlight Cleaver's artistic process and detail the creative working relationship between Cleaver and Toye, in the context of the explosion of children's book publishing in Canada. Includes a bibliography of Cleaver’s works, a list of her awards and honours and a synopsis of the article in French. The authors' points are illustrated with 16 black and white images of Cleaver’s artwork as well as two photos of Cleaver and Toye.


Saltman, Judith, and Gail Edwards. “Towards a History of Design in Canadian Children's Illustrated Books.” CCL: Canadian Children's Literature/ Littérature canadienne pour la jeunesse, 107 (2002): 10-18.

This article is in a special Book and Toy Design issue of Canadian Children's Literature. Edwards and Saltman position a history of the development of design in Canadian children's illustrated books within the context of the history of graphic and general book design in Canada. The article provides many concrete examples of changing trends in illustration and design. Accompanied by nine black and white reproductions of Canadian illustrators' artwork.


Toronto Board of Education. Work Group on Educational and Library Materials. Canadian Books in Canadian Schools. Toronto: Association of Canadian Publishers, 1977.

This case study reports on the findings of the Work Group on Educational and Library Materials of the Toronto Board of Education in 1976. The report was published as part of the Issues in Canadian Book Publishing series published by the Public Information Committee of the Association of Canadian Publishers with the intention of encouraging discussion of the book industry in Canada. The report is divided into five main sections: an introduction by Evelyn Cotter; an explanation of the reasons for the case study in 1976; a detailed account of the processes and findings of the Work Group; an analysis of the financial, concrete and political reasons behind the findings; and recommendations for teachers, librarians, administrators, curriculum developers, school boards and all levels of government. The Work Group surveyed Canadian textbooks available in Toronto elementary schools and Canadian materials available in Toronto elementary and secondary school libraries concluding that the number of adequate Canadian materials in schools was insufficient. Viewpoints of teachers, librarians and curriculum consultants are included. Includes nine tables and diagrams of information gathered by the Work Group.


Waterston, Elizabeth. Children’s Literature in Canada. New York: Twayne Publishers; Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada, 1992.

This survey of Canadian children’s literature links the literary appeal of Canadian literature to the developmental age of children. Thus the book is organized by age-appropriateness and genre; for instance, nursery fare, traditional stories, historical fiction, and young adult fiction. Within each chapter, Waterston examines the appeal of specific books, and provides a literary analysis of classics, exploring their enduring relevance to children. The introductory chapter discusses the development of Canadian literature for children, the particular appeal of Canadian literature, and examines some of the current professional literature on the topic. Includes index and extensive 20-page bibliography.


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Catalogues of Special Collections and Exhibitions of Canadian Children's Books and Canadian Picturebooks

Aubrey, Irene E. Pictures to Share: Illustration in Canadian Children's Books. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1979.

Aubrey, Irene E. Pictures to Share: Illustration in Canadian Children's Books. 2d ed. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1987.

This is a catalogue of the National Library of Canada’s exhibition of Canadian children’s books celebrating the International Year of the Child in 1979. In the first edition, more than one hundred English and French children's books are included. The second edition adds 13 new illustrators in the original sections, plus another 41 entries covering 1980-1985. Each of the titles is considered to have made a unique contribution to Canada’s national juvenile literature. A summary of the book’s contents, comments on the illustrations, and a list of the awards given to the book are included in each entry’s annotation. Entry is by illustrator, with an author/title index.


Canada at Bologna: An Exhibition of Canadian Children's Book Illustrations, Bologna, April 5 to 8, 1990. [Toronto]: Canada at Bologna Steering Committee, 1990.

This is a full-colour catalogue of a travelling exhibition of illustrations in Canadian children’s books held through 1990-1991 in Bologna, Rome, Munich, and Paris. The exhibition was held to honour the international level of excellence in Canadian children’s book illustration in the 1980s. The caption for each illustration includes award information, a short list of other works by the illustrator, the illustrator’s address, birthplace, birth year, and the name of the art school[s] attended.


The Canadian Children’s Book Centre Art Auction [1997 catalogue]. Toronto: The Canadian Children’s Book Centre, n.d.

The Canadian Children’s Book Centre, founded in 1976, is a national non-profit organization active in the promotion of the publishing, writing, and illustrating of Canadian children’s literature. This full-colour catalogue reproduces all the illustrations featured at the centre’s 1997 fundraising art auction. The illustrators donated the art. A showcase for the talents of Canadian illustrators of children’s books, this catalogue offers an excellent sampling for people who would like to familiarize themselves with the names of Canadian illustrators and the different styles and media they employ.


Canton, Jeffery, Alfonsina Clemente, and Daniel St-Hilaire. ABC Beyond the Letters: Retrospective of Canadian Alphabet Books. Ottawa: National Library of Canada and National Archives of Canada, 2003.

This booklet accompanied the exhibition by the same name of 42 Canadian alphabet picturebooks as part of the greater celebration of Canadian children's literature, The Fun of Reading: International Forum on Canadian Children's Literature, a commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the National Library of Canada in 2003. Includes introductory messages from the National Librarian of Canada Roch Carrier and Head of the Canadian Children's Literature Service, Josiane Polidori. The theme essay and individual book captions are by exhibit curator, Jeffrey Canton. All 42 French and English Canadian alphabet picturebooks are listed by type in an annotated bibliography with a black and white cover illustration for each. The 51 page booklet is half English and half French translation.


Cartwright, Ellen Thomas. Once Upon a Time: Catalogue of an Exhibition Held May 20 to July 11, 1988. Vancouver: Vancouver Art Gallery, 1988.

Held at the Vancouver Art Gallery in 1988, "Once Upon a Time" was the first Canadian national public gallery exhibition showcasing the original artwork by contemporary Canadian children's book illustrators. This brochure includes a list of the illustrations featured in the exhibition, and a brief discussion on the historical development of the picturebook. The language used by professionals to evaluate picturebooks is also introduced, and sample pictures are included in the brochure to illustrate the different principles discussed.


Creating the Mosaic: A Celebration of Canadian Children's Culture. Vancouver: Japanese Culture and Communications Program of the David See-Chai Lam Centre for International Communication, Simon Fraser University at Harbour Centre, 1997.

This English-Japanese bilingual catalogue contains several essays, an annotated bibliography of selected Canadian children’s books and videos, and a listing of Canadian publishers and distributors. This publication is the companion to a travelling exhibition that featured storytelling, a children’s choir, video screenings, and lectures presented to seven Japanese cities during 1997. Essay topics discuss the Creating the Mosaic Project itself, multiculturalism in Canadian children’s literature, the experiences of Warabe Aska, a Japanese-Canadian author/illustrator, and reports from the Canada-Japan Friendship Society. The book includes several large colour reproductions of Canadian children’s book covers, as well as smaller black-and-white images of the titles included in the bibliography.


Egoff, Sheila, and Alvine Bélisle. Notable Canadian Children's Books / Un choix de livres canadiens pour la jeunesse. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1973.

This is an annotated bibliography of children’s books published from the eighteenth century to the 1970s. Designed as a catalogue for an exhibition at the National Library of Canada, it traces the history of Canadian publishing of English and French literature for children. Most of the titles are Canadian. Annotations are written in the same language as the book being introduced, and may include plot summaries, themes, literary criticism, and commentary on the importance and contribution of the particular book to Canadian children’s literature as a whole. Also included is a well-written and informative introductory essay by Egoff on publication trends for children’s books in Canada, and a brief discussion by Bélisle of the different subject matters in the French-Canadian books.


Egoff, Sheila, comp., with the assistance of Margaret Burke, Ronald Hagler, and Joan
Pert. Canadian Children's Books, 1799-1939, in the Special Collections and University Archives Division, The University of British Columbia: A Bibliographical Catalogue. Vancouver: The University of British Columbia Library, 1992.

This is a catalogue of Canadian children’s books published before 1940 and held in the Special Collections Division of The University of British Columbia library. The catalogue is bibliographical in nature, providing a transcription of the information found on the title page of each book, and additional notes about framing, bordering or background, presence of signature, information on the illustration, and a short annotation for each book. Examples of illustrations are reproduced.


A History of Children’s Book Illustrations 1750-1940: [exhibition] The Gallery Stratford,
June 6-July 23 [1978]. [Stratford, Ont.]: The Gallery Stratford, [1978].

This booklet accompanied the exhibition “A History of Children’s Book Illustrations 1750-1940,” held at The Gallery Stratford. Funded by the National Museums of Canada, the exhibition places children’s literature of the period in its historical context, focusing in particular on society’s views on children and education, the development of printing technology, and the growth of middle-class patronage of literature and art. The catalogue features primarily British illustrators, with a few American, French and German entries, and three Canadians. The catalogue includes a large number of black-and-white reproductions, and a few colour plates. Titles are arranged chronologically, and are accompanied by notes that place them in an historical context, and document any relation they may have to other items in the exhibition.


Osborne Collection of Early Children’s Books, 1566-1910. 2 vols. Toronto: Toronto Public Library, 1958.

This catalogue describes the contents of a prized collection of children’s books published in Great Britain. The collection was donated to Toronto Public Library in 1949 by English librarian Edgar Osborne. This resource, currently the only complete finding aid to the collection’s contents, includes an introduction by Osborne explaining his decision to donate the collection to the Canadian library.


Shefrin, Jill. Box of Delights: 600 Years of Children’s Books at the Osborne Collection of Early Children’s Books. Toronto: Toronto Public Library, 1995.

Box of Delights is the catalogue for an exhibition held at the Toronto Public Library, October 20, 1995 to February 10, 1996, marking the opening of a new home for the Osborne Collection of Early Children’s Books. Publication dates for the books in the collection range from the fourteenth century to the late twentieth century. Books are listed individually and arranged in the pages of the catalogue by category; for instance, Movable Books, Games and other Novelties; Juvenile Abridgments; and The Popular Market. An explanatory note prefaces each category. The annotations accompanying each title are frequently lengthy and highly informative. Numerous colour and black-and-white illustrations add visual interest. Canadian content is minimal, as the catalogue is intended as an introduction to the history of children’s books in Great Britain, and to a lesser extent, in North America.


Show and Tell: Outstanding Canadian Picture Books 2000-2003 = Montre et raconte : albums illustrés canadiens remarquables 2000-2003. Toronto: IBBY Canada, 2004.

This French-English bilingual booklet accompanied the IBBY Canada national and international touring exhibit by the same name. The exhibit included a juried selection of 50 Canadian picturebooks published in English or French from 2000-2003. Includes addresses by Josiane Polidori, IBBY Canada president and Kimete Basha i Novosejt, IBBY Executive Director, Brussels, Belgium. Also features essays on children's illustration by Québec-based art historian, Francine Sarrasin, Judith Saltman (University of British Columbia), and illustrator, Marie-Louise Gay. The 50 books from the exhibit listed and reviewed by Deirdre Baker, Sally Bender and Sonia Sarfati are accompanied by full-colour cover and inside sample spread images. A list of participating publishers follows.


Treasures: Canadian Children's Book Illustration. Toronto: The Children's Book Centre, [1986].

This “measure of children’s book art in 1986” includes biographical and professional information about thirty leading Canadian children’s book illustrators. A two-page spread is devoted to each artist, and includes a small black-and-white photograph of the illustrator, and a large full-colour image from one of the artist’s books. The featured illustrations have been chosen as especially representative of each artist’s unique style. The variety in the colour plates is striking, providing a sense of the breadth of Canadian children’s book illustration in the mid-1980s. Treasures is dedicated to the memory of Elizabeth Cleaver, and includes an informative introduction by Irma McDonough Milnes.


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Specialized Lists and Annotated Bibliographies of Canadian Children's Books and Canadian Picturebooks


Amtmann, Bernard. A Bibliography of Canadian Children’s Books and Books for Young People, 1841-1867. Montreal: Author, 1977.

This follow-up to Amtmann’s Early Canadian Children’s Books, 1763-1840 (see entry below) lists books considered suitable for children and produced and printed in Canada between 1841 and1867. Entries are listed in the language of publication, English, French or First Nations, and include the source of the information, but are not annotated. Includes some reprints of illustrations.


Amtmann, Bernard. Early Canadian Children’s Books, 1763-1840: A Bibliographical Investigation into the Nature and Extent of Early Canadian Children's Books and Books for Young People. Montreal: Author, 1976.

This bibliography lists 593 books, all “produced and printed in Canada prior to 1840,” considered suitable for children even if originally intended for adults. Entries are listed in the language of publication, English, French or First Nations, and include the source of the information. Part I is considered extensive, and includes all books written by Canadians about Canada. Part II is selective, and includes titles about Canada by non-Canadians. Includes some reprints of illustrations.


Canadian Book Review Annual: Canadian Children’s Literature. Toronto: P. Martin. Annual, 1993 – present.

This annual review lists “Canadian-authored” children’s and young adult books published in Canada – the 2000 list provides 500 titles. The list is organized by topic; for instance, Children’s Picture Books; Juvenile and Young Adult Fiction; Folklore, Native Legends; People, History; and Science, Technology. Each entry features full bibliographic information, a suggested age range, Dewey decimal classification information, a signed annotation with a brief discussion of plot and illustration, and a recommendation tag line. A single annotation is provided for items in series. A publisher’s directory is appended. Indexed by author, title and subject (not by illustrator).


Canadian Children’s Book Centre. Best Books for Kids & Teens. Toronto: Canadian Children’s Book Centre. Annual, 2008 – present.

This list of the best of the current and past year's Canadian books for children and young adults is released annually. Previously titled Our Choice (from 1977 to 2007), the CCBC changed the title to Best Books for Kids & Teens with the 2008 issue. The titles are organized by topic/genre; e.g., Picturebooks, Fiction, Graphic Novels, History, Geography & Culture, and Professional & Resource. Sections for Magazines, Audio, and DVDs are included. Each entry contains full bibliographic information, illustrator's name, a short annotation, and reading level and interest level by grade. There is a list of award winners (current and prior year) and an index by author, illustrator, and title. Lists of starred selections from previous Our Choice and Best Books issues from 2002 to present are also available on the CCBC website.


Canadian Children’s Book Centre. Our Choice. Toronto: Canadian Children’s Book Centre. Annual, 1977 – 2007.

This list of the best of the current and past year’s Canadian books for children and young adults is released annually in November, during Canadian Children’s Book Week. The titles are organized by topic/genre; for instance, Picturebooks, Fiction, Music and Plays, History, and Language Arts. Each entry includes full bibliographic information, illustrator’s name, a short annotation, and reading level and interest level by grade. There is a backlist of Our Choice selections for the two years prior, a list of award winners (current and prior year) and an index by author, illustrator, and title. The Canadian Children’s Book Centre publishes a range of specialized bibliographies, such as Too Good to Miss; guides such as Company’s Coming; and a newsletter, Children’s Book News.


Frayne, Jennifer Laidley, and Henry Hadeed. Print for Young Canadians : A Bibliographical Catalogue of Canadian Fiction for Children, from 1825-1920. Toronto: June Frayne, 1975

This bibliography lists out-of-print Canadian literature for children published up to 1920. Part I is an unannotated list of fiction titles, organized by author, and includes a title index. The second section is a collection of appendices, listing titles by topic: Poetry; Eskimo Legends; Indian Legends; Folk Tales; and Resources and References. Includes an introduction discussing the prevalent use of story as a literary device in Canadian literature for children. Includes some reprints of illustrations.


Gagnon, Andre, and Ann Gagnon, eds. Canadian Books for Young People / Livres canadiens pour la jeunesse. 4th edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988.

An update of Irma McDonough’s 1980 bibliography (see entry below), this resource reviews a selected number of Canadian children’s books published since 1980. The editors follow McDonough’s established style, but have introduced a few changes: not all published books are included, though the resource lists 2,500 titles; coverage has been expanded to include books intended for readers up to age 18; and board books are also included. Entries are listed in the language in which the book was written, and a notation is made for titles translated from English or French.


Haselbach, Sheri, and Roberta Miskokoman, eds. First Nations 1989 Annotated Bibliography: A Listing of Books, Videos for and Approved by First Nations. London, Ont.: Southern Ontario Library Services, 1989.

The editors have organized this bibliography by format, with entry by author or, in the case of audiovisual resources, by title. Each entry includes subject headings and a brief annotation when necessary. Includes resources about Inuit peoples. Title index included.


McDonough, Irma, ed. Canadian Books for Young People / Livres canadiens pour la jeunesse. 3d edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980.

This resource reviews the books released since the second edition was published in 1978. Entries include publication information, a short annotation and age recommendation for preschoolers to age 14. The titles are organized into picturebooks, folklore, and by subject, including junior fiction. Entries are listed in the language in which the book was written, with English titles outnumbering those in French. Appendices include professional resources and lists of award-winning titles.


McQuarrie, Jane, and Diane Dubois, comps. and eds. Canadian Picture Books / Livres
d'images canadiens
. Toronto: Reference Press, 1986.

This is an extremely useful and comprehensive bilingual index to Canadian fiction and non-fiction picturebooks for preschoolers and elementary students up to 1985. Concise annotations are provided for each title, and the book is intended as a searching aid. Following the format in Carolyn Lima’s American publication, A to Zoo: Subject Access to Children’s Picture Books, the compilers provide access by author, illustrator, title, and subject (in both languages). Brief annotations are in the language of the book being cited. An asterisk indicates a title the editors consider to be of exceptional quality.


National Library of Canada. Notable Canadian Children’s Books. Ottawa: National Library of Canada. Annual, 1973 – 1990/91.

First published as an annotated catalogue for a National Library of Canada exhibition, this selective list was published as an annual supplement, with five-year compilations, until 1990/91. Notable titles in both French and English are separately compiled. Each entry features a lengthy annotation in both languages. Indexed by author, illustrator, title, subject heading, and literary awards. Compiler Irene Aubrey has edited other annotated bibliographies of Canadian children’s books, providing access to both English and French titles. These bibliographies include:
Aubrey, Irene, ed. Animal World in Canadian Books for Children and Young People: List. Rev. ed. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1983.

Aubrey, Irene E. Canadian Children’s Books: A Treasury of Pictures: List. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1976.
This 18-page bibliography is organized by illustrator, listing the author, title, and publication information of books he/she has illustrated. French books are listed on pages 1-7; followed by English books on pages 8-18. A brief description of the book’s plot is given in the language of publication.

Aubrey, Irene, ed. Mystery and Adventure in Canadian Books for Children and Young People: List. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1983.

Aubrey, Irene, ed. Sports and Games in Canadian Books for Children and Young People: List. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1982.


National Library of Canada. Read Up On It. Ottawa: National Library of Canada. Annual, 1990 – present.

This annual bilingual guide to the best in Canadian literature for children and young adults is based on the National Library of Canada's children's literature collection. A free kit is available for librarians, teachers, parents, and group leaders, and a comprehensive web site edition is also offered. Each year’s edition is thematic (the 2001 theme is Nature and the Environment) with recommended titles in both English and French. Lengthy annotations accompany each entry, along with an age recommendation. Covers are reproduced for most titles. The guide includes a message from the National Librarian, an interview with an author/illustrator, a featured essay, a list of award winners, selection criteria, and an index by age group and by name/title. http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/3/11/index-e.html.


Nilson, Lenore, comp., and Jane Charlton, ed. The Best of Children's Choices. Ottawa: Citizen’s Committee on Children, 1988.

This is an annotated collection of 600 favourite Canadian children's books chosen by Ottawa-area children, from preschoolers to young teens. Each book featured was enjoyed by a majority (at least two-thirds) of the children who read the book. Entries include bibliographic information, a rating based on the book’s popularity, a recommended age range, and a brief description. While only English titles were reviewed, a notation is included for books available in a French translation. Indexed by author and by title.


Paruñgao, Pat, comp. Canada’s Year of Asia Pacific Multicultural Bibliography. Vancouver: BCTLA, 1997.

This update of Lisa Strong’s Contemporary Books Reflecting Canada's Cultural Diversity (see entry below) is intended to promote cultural diversity and cross-cultural understanding as well as providing insight into different cultures through literature suitable for children in grades K-12. Fiction books are listed by author, non-fiction titles are organized by Dewey classification numbers, and audio-visual materials are listed by author/director, and each entry is annotated and assigned subject headings and grade range. Includes a checklist for evaluating multicultural materials. Indexed separately by fiction title, non-fiction title and by subject.


Robinson, Paul, comp. 200+ Jim Dandies. Sydney, N.S.: Children’s Centre, University College of Cape Breton, 1988.

This list of English-language children’s books written and published in Atlantic Canada from 1977-1987 is organized into five groups: Atlantic; Indian, Inuit and Metis; Issues; Classics; and Award-winners. Only publication information is provided for each title, along with a recommended reading level. Appendices include a list of publishers in the region.


Snow, Kathleen, Ricky Dabbs, Esther Gorosh. Subject Index to Canadian Poetry in English for Children and Young People. 2d edition. Ottawa: Canadian Library Association, 1986.

The authors provide subject access to individual poems listed in 120 collections of Canadian poetry for children, published between 1976 and 1983. Page numbers within the cited poetry collection are also provided. First published 1983 under the title Subject Index for Children and Young People to Canadian Poetry in English.


Strong, Lisa, ed. Contemporary Books Reflecting Canada's Cultural Diversity: A Selective Annotated Bibliography for Grades K-12. Vancouver: British Columbia Teacher-Librarians’ Association, 1992.

Intended for use in Canadian schools, this bibliography was published to promote awareness of Canada’s many cultures through literature. Fiction and non-fiction books are listed separately by author. Each entry is annotated and assigned subject headings and grade range. Includes a bibliography of recommended professional resources. Indexed separately by title and by subject.


Verrall, Catherine, and Patricia McDowell, comps., in consultation with Lenore Keeshig-Tobias. Resource Reading List 1990: Annotated Bibliography of Resources By and About Native People. Toronto: Canadian Alliance in Solidarity with the Native Peoples, 1990.

This selection tool is intended to provide readers with “the most useful books and other resources” about Canada’s First Nations peoples, including Inuit and Metis. The compilers explain the selection criteria they used, and the reasoning behind the arrangement within the bibliography, which seeks to reflect and respect First Nations values. While most of the resources cited are in English, there are some titles in French and in First Nations languages. Includes checklist for evaluating First Nations resources. Separately indexed by author, title, and audiovisual title.


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Bio-Bibliographies and Dictionaries of Canadian Children's Authors and Illustrators

Canadian Children's Book Centre, comp. The Storymakers: Illustrating Children's Books: Biographies of 72 Artists and Illustrators. Markham, Ont.: Pembroke Publishers, 1999.

Canadian Children's Book Centre, comp. The Storymakers: Writing Children's Books: 83 Authors Talk About Their Work. Markham, Ont.: Pembroke Publishers, 2000.

Compiled by the Canadian Children's Book Centre, these two companion volumes provide biographical information on Canadian authors and illustrators and bibliographical information on their works. These valuable resources provide information on writers' and illustrators' personal lives, habits, and interests, as well as their views on their own books and on writing in general. These resources are updated and revised editions of the Canadian Children’s Book Centre’s Writing Stories, Making Pictures: Biographies of 150 Canadian Children's Authors and Illustrators, published in 1994 (see entry under title below).


Gertridge, Allison. Meet Canadian Authors and Illustrators, rev. ed. Richmond Hill, Ont.: Scholastic Canada, 2002.

A revision of the original 1994 edition, this resource provides a thorough profile of each author or illustrator discussed, including: biographical information (e.g. career path, entry into the field of children's books); a selected bibliography (awarded titles are marked); characteristics of their writing or illustrations such as style, subject matters of interest, working habits, and artistic aspirations; and advice for future writers. It is intriguing to hear from authors and illustrators on the creation of their picturebooks. The book also gives a good sense of the diversity of Canadian children's books.


Greenwood, Barbara, ed. Behind the Story: The Creators of Our Best Children's Books and How They Do It. Markham, Ont.: Pembroke Publishers, 1995.

Published by the Canadian Society of Children’s Authors, Illustrators and Performers (CANSCAIP), this book includes profiles of a selected number of Canadian authors and illustrators, written by other equally respected authors. The strength of this collection of profiles lies in the personal touches found in the profiles, giving the readers a glimpse of the authors’ lives, from their hobbies to their favourite books. The writers also comment on their own works and discuss their preparations for writing and illustrating.


Greenwood, Barbara, ed. The CANSCAIP Companion: A Biographical Record of Canadian Children’s Authors, Illustrators and Performers. Markham, Ont.: Pembroke Publishers, 1991.

Greenwood, Barbara, ed. The CANSCAIP Companion: A Biographical Record of Canadian Children’s Authors, Illustrators and Performers. 2d ed. Markham, Ont.: Pembroke Publishers, 1994.

This comprehensive directory is published by the Canadian Society of Children's Authors, Illustrators, and Performers (CANSCAIP), a seminal author/illustrator/performer organization that has played an important role in the development of the Canadian children’s book scene. This resource lists more than 350 of its members alphabetically, with indices by region and by artistic activity. Each entry includes a photograph, address and phone number, biography, list of published works, awards won, and availability for workshops and visits.


Greenwood, Barbara, ed. Presenting Children's Authors, Illustrators, and Performers. Markham, Ont.: Pembroke Publishers, 1990.

This resource provides profiles of thirty-seven Canadian authors, illustrators, and performers for children, spanning the period 1979 to 1990. It also contains a short introduction, which describes the formation of the Canadian Society of Children's Authors, Illustrators, and Performers (CANSCAIP), a support group for Canadian artists and creators of works for children. The profiles are arranged chronologically, adding a sense of the historical development of Canadian literature for children.


Jones, Raymond E., and Jon C. Stott. Canadian Children’s Books: A Critical Guide to Authors and Illustrators. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Detailed profiles of Canadian writers and illustrators provide information on their education, careers, works published, and awards received, and point to other articles for further information. Highlight of each profile is the critical essay on the individual, which explores the style, subject, themes, critical reception, and bibliography of the particular author or illustrator. There is also a listing of the winners of the major English-language Canadian children’s book awards (up to 1998) and a suggested reading list of journals and other useful tools for consultation.


McDonough, Irma, ed. Profiles. Ottawa: Canadian Library Association, 1975.

Originally published in the seminal Canadian children’s book review journal In Review, this book compiles twenty short, descriptive and biographical essays of Canadian authors. Each essay summarizes the author's works, career path, and contribution to Canadian children's literature. Because the information is gathered from personal interviews, readers will enjoy the personal touches and the authors’ anecdotes.


McDonough, Irma, ed. Profiles Two: Authors and Illustrators, Children's Literature in Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Library Association, 1982.

A continuation of the publication of Profiles in 1975, this book provides another forty-four profiles of Canadian authors and illustrators of children's literature. The profiles provide information on the creators' accomplishments, the subject matter of their books, early influences on their lives, accounts of the beginning of their careers, other interests, and their involvement in the Canadian writing, illustrating, or publishing scene. Each entry includes a bibliography of the creator's work.


Meyer, M. D. Meet Manitoba Children's Authors. Norway House, Man.: Goldrock, 2008.

Dorene Meyer, novelist and children's book author, has created a book that introduces 37 children's book authors from the province of Manitoba. Meyer's introduction explains that the goal of the book is to inspire Canadian, and specifically Manitoban, youth to consider a career as an author. The authors' profiles are targeted toward students and following each profile there are various writing exercises. Each author provides a two page profile with a photo that usually includes a funny fact, the author's earliest memories of writing, their favourite books as children, advice to young writers, encouragement and a way to contact the author. Three of the volume's authors have written books that are available only in French, and René Ammann's entry is written entirely in French. The book targeted at ages 8 and up.

Authors include: France Adams, Rene Ammann, Rae Bridgman, Margaret Buffie, Martha Brooks, Eleanor Chornoboy, Anita Daher, John Danakas, Deborah Delaronde, Edgar Desjarlais, Maureen Fergus, Desiree Gillespie, Gabriele Goldstone, Linda Holeman, Greg Jackson-Davis, Rob Keough, Jake MacDonald, Carol Matas, Joe McLellan, Matrine McLellan, M.D. Meyer , Beatrice Mosionier, Bonnie Murray, Angela Narth, Perry Nodelman, KC Oliver, Louisa Picoux, Rachelle Pomfrey, Colleen Sydor, Gwen Smid, Carol Szuminsky, Hannah Taylor, Duncan Thornton, Rita Toews, Helen Toews, Larry Verstrate and Eva Wiseman.


Stott, Jon C., and Raymond E. Jones. Canadian Books for Children: A Guide to Authors and Illustrators. Toronto: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich Canada, 1988.

The 1970s and 1980s bore witness to the growth of Canadian children's literature. In order to illustrate the development of the English-language literature for children in Canada, the authors have written articles, biographical and critical in nature, on a number of representative writers and artists. Includes both guidelines for using Canadian literature in school, and a bibliography of suggested titles for different grades. A list of the winners of major English-language children's book awards up to 1987 is included. A limited number of black-and-white reprints are included.


Writing Stories, Making Pictures: Biographies of 150 Canadian Children’s Authors and Illustrators. Toronto: The Canadian Children’s Book Centre, 1994.

In these biographies compiled from interviews, 150 renowned authors and illustrators in Canada answer some frequently asked questions about their lives, work habits, leisure activities, and their "muses" for their work. In addition to providing an excellent introduction to the creators of Canadian children books, this resource offers interesting personal information, such as hobbies, description of workplaces, or memories about childhood, all of which help the reader to better understand the author or illustrator as a person. Includes a section on Canadian book awards, services of the Canadian Children Book Centre, and advice on hosting an author or illustrator visit to schools and libraries.

Journals of Criticism and Review Relevant to Canadian Children's Literature

Books in Canada. Toronto: Canadian Review of Books Ltd. 1971 – present

CBRAonline. . Toronto: The Dundurn Group, 2009 – present. As of 2009, CBRAonline replaced the print edition of CBRA.

Canadian Book Review Annual. Toronto: P. Martin. 1975 – 2009. As of 2009, CBRAonline replaced the print edition of CBRA.

Canadian Book Review Annual: Canadian Children's Literature. Toronto: P. Martin. 1994 – 2009

Canadian Children's Book News. Toronto: Canadian Children’s Book Centre. 1978 – present

CCL: Canadian Children's Literature: A Journal of Criticism and Review. Guelph: Canadian Children’s Literature Association. 1975 – 2008. In 2009, it became Jeunesse: Young People, Texts and Cultures

CM: Canadian Review of Materials. Winnipeg: Manitoba Library Association. 1995 – present

In Review. Toronto: Ontario Provincial Library Service. 1967-1982

Jeunesse: Young People, Texts, Cultures. 1997 – present

The Looking Glass: New Perspectives on Children’s Literature. 2009 – present

Lurelu. Montreal: Communication-jeunesse. 1978 – present

Quill & Quire. Toronto: Greey de Pencier Publications. 1935 – present

Resource Links. Pouch Cove, NF: Council for Canadian Learning Resources. 1995 – present

Teacher Librarian: The Journal for School Library Professionals. Vancouver: Rockland Press. 1973 – 2005; Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2005 – present
Vols. 1-25 (1973-1998) published as Emergency Librarian.

A Selected Reading List on International Illustration and Illustrated Books

Alderson, Brian. Looking at Picture Books 1973: An Exhibition Prepared by Brian Alderson and Arranged by the National Book League. London: National Book League, 1973.

Brian Alderson, British children's literature scholar and critic, has prepared a catalogue created to accompany a picturebook exhibition. The author considers principles that underlie both the creation of different types of picturebooks and their critical assessment. The exhibition's aim is twofold: to suggest the range of picturebooks and to develop a critical standpoint for aesthetic judgment. The catalogue is divided into a series of broad section, within which highlighted key books demonstrate major points. Alderson focuses on picturebooks from the 1960s and 1970s and contrasts them with similar earlier books published from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Picturebooks and other media are categorized in 13 sections, such as "Alphabet Books," " Pictures and Play," and "Traditional Stories" that mark different stages of the child's reading development. Each section includes a short synopsis, suggestions as to intended audience, and evaluations of each work. Black and white illustrations refer to specific entries.Includes a selective bibliography and index.


Alderson, Brian. Sing a Song For Sixpence: The English Picturebook Tradition [and Randolph Caldecott]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, in association with the British Library, 1986.

Published on the occasion of an exhibition held at the British Library to commemorate Randolph Caldecott's enormous success and contribution to the area of picturebook illustration, this book describes in detail the English tradition of illustration and the changes that have taken place in book production. Alderson, an authority on the history of English children’s literature, thoroughly covers the progression of “nursery literature” in Britain by chronologically spotlighting British illustrators as well as European influences on the genre. A chapter on the techniques of illustration, notably woodcut and metal engraving, offers an important context to the study of English picturebook illustration. Many whimsical details are incorporated to entice the reader into the lives of these artists, and the British tradition in narrative illustration in general. Alderson’s flair for storytelling and the abundance of reprints bring this examination of the English picturebook to life, and allow the reader to witness the progression of the genre through examples of various illustrators’ work.


Ammon, Bette D. and Gale W. Sherman. Worth a Thousand Words: An Annotated Guide to Picture Books for Older Readers. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, 1996.

In their introduction, Ammon and Sherman argue that the format of the picturebook does not dictate the age of the intended audience or use of the material. Worth a Thousand Words provides a single-source, comprehensive listing of picturebooks intended for older readers. The book includes an instruction page on the different ways this resource might be used, a bibliography of titles pertaining to picturebooks, the criteria used for inclusion of materials, and three indices (author/illustrator, title, and subject) for quick and easy reference. In total, 645 titles are arranged alphabetically by author (or title, where appropriate). Each is annotated, and each includes a relevant subject list and detailed notes, with related icons, for the purposes of: enhanced classroom use; matching books with readers; and identification of outstanding material. This book serves as an excellent beginning database for matching books in this format with their intended audience.


Anstey, Michèle, and Geoff Bull. Reading the Visual: Written and Illustrated Children's Literature. Sydney: Harcourt Australia, 2000.

Anstey and Bull approach illustrated children's books from a postmodern perspective by providing a critical analysis of the interdependency between written and illustrated text and by arguing that illustrated children's books are sophisticated literary discourses that allow for multiple readings by multiple audiences depending on varying socio-economic, political and cultural factors. The first section of Anstey's and Bull's book proposes the notion that written and illustrated texts are interrelated and explores their interaction by analyzing the various genres of children's literature and by tracing the development of the picturebook from its beginnings to postmodern times with a primary focus on English-authored texts. The second section explores the relationship between written and illustrated texts further by discussing the technical aspects of the illustration process in relation to the authoring and publication process and by describing the collaboration that takes places between writers, illustrators and publishers in the making of a picture book. The third section proposes a new methodology for developing visual literacy in the classroom from a social perspective by teaching students to read picture books critically and identify the embedded cultural messages in both the written and illustrated text. Every chapter concludes with a set of reflective questions and an exhaustive reference list. A glossary, a set of academic and children's literature references, an index and a selection of coloured illustrations are included at the end.


Arizpe, Evelyn, and Morag Styles. Children Reading Pictures: Interpreting Visual Texts. London: RoutledgeFalmer, 2003.

This book presents the results of a two-year long study conducted in various schools in Great Britain with children of different ages and of varying economic, ethnical, educational and social backgrounds. The study tried to ascertain the visual literacy capabilities of these schoolchildren by exposing them on different occasions to popular picture books. The study found that even children that were considered to have poor written literacy skills by their teachers excelled at reading and understanding picture books and at interpreting complex and sophisticated visual clues. These findings have apparently deep implications for teaching literacy in the classroom and suggest that the reading curriculum needs to be modified to make room for this new type of visual literacy. Illustrations from studied picture books and from the drawings made by the interviewees are included, as well as an index, and a bibliography are included. A four-part appendix lists the interview questions employed by the researchers during their study.


Bader, Barbara. American Picturebooks from Noah’s Ark to the Beast Within. New York: Macmillan, 1976.

This is one of the most comprehensive texts examining the development of children’s picturebooks in the United States. Bader begins by defining the picturebook as an entity in itself, which includes text, illustration, design, and the “interdependence” of these elements. She then reviews the history of children’s book illustration, notably a discussion of English and European illustrators and their influence on the development of the genre. With this foundation, Bader examines the development of American picturebook illustration over the decades, both thematically and focusing specifically on a selected number of illustrators and writers. With an extensive collection of reprints (many of them in colour), her detailed commentary, and explanation of artistic styles and elements, Bader is able to place books in context to the extent that readers may feel they have read the book themselves. Finally, Bader considers the influence of child development and societal change on picturebooks, giving a context and rationale for developments in the genre. Bibliographic notes and references, many of which are annotated, and a thorough index are included.


Bang, Molly. Picture This: How Pictures Work. San Francisco: SeaStar Books, 2000.

Bang, Molly. Picture This: Perception & Composition. Boston: Little, Brown, 1991.

Molly Bang, American author and illustrator of more than 20 books, discusses visual communication through manipulation of simple geometric shapes to convey emotional reaction and effect. Developed from her art workshops for children, Bang's text explains how compositional art choices are made. To illustrate the tale of "Little Red Riding Hood," the author develops effective illustrations of various shapes and colors from construction paper manipulated by shape, size, colour, and spatial position to achieve different emotional responses. She continues in more detail to describe the properties of visual elements, such as gravitational effect, and how elements can be used together to elicit different emotions. Bang effectively leads the reader through her artistic thought process as she explains how she uses the interplay of shape, size and colour to achieve the desired emotional response.


Barker, Keith. Outstanding Books For Children and Young People: The LA Guide to Carnegie/Greenaway Winners, 1937-1997. London: Library Association Publishing, 1998.

The Carnegie Medal and the Kate Greenaway Medal are awarded every year by the Library Association to the best writing and the best illustrating efforts, respectively, in British children’s books. Barker provides an annotated and chronological list of the winners and commended titles from 1937 to 1997. The annotations are well written, providing a description of the winning story or illustrations, and a critical evaluation of the book's relevance and place in British children's literature.


Barr, John. Illustrated Children’s Books. London: The British Library, 1986.

Based on the children’s book collection of the British Library, the author delivers an overall guide to the “golden age” of children’s book illustration, between the late eighteenth century and the 1920’s. The book discusses techniques of graphic reproduction – from woodcuts to photolithography, presents an early history of book illustration for children, elaborates upon the nonsense and fantasy genres, relates the influence of nineteenth century printer and engraver Edmund Evans and his artists, and outlines the development of gift books. The reader is briefly introduced to the outstanding artists, publishers, and printers in the history of children’s book illustration, to their methods of working, and to reviews by their contemporaries. Examples of illustrations, both colour and black-and-white, are plentiful. The author also includes a list of sources for more in-depth research into the subject. Barr’s history of the development of illustrated books for children provides an excellent overview in a concise, organized manner.


Bennett, Jill. Learning to Read with Picture Books. 4th ed. Stroud, England: Thimble Press, 1991.

Although small in size, this fourth edition has much to offer. The text reviews more than 300 picturebooks, organized in three parts: First Steps (for beginner readers, such as single nursery rhymes in a picturebook form), Gaining Confidence (books that help children connect symbols and sounds, such as ABC books), and Taking Off (a wider range including picturebooks, stories with illustrations, and chapter books). The sections are arranged progressively, although Bennett asserts there is no set order to the books, and urges readers to take the lead from the child. In the introduction, Bennett discusses strategies for helping children learn to read, developed from her 19 years of experience as an educator. A short chapter on shared reading concludes the text. Include index by title, author and illustrator, and ISBN and price (in British pounds) for each title reviewed.


Blake, Quentin. Magic Pencil: Children's Book Illustration Today. UK, London: British Council and the British Library, 2003.

In May 2002, Quentin Blake, the UK's first Children's Laureate, selected the picturebook art to be included in the travelling exhibition called Magic Pencil. Following the success of the exhibition, Blake produced the book edition which provides a lasting version of the original exhibition. Blake’s introduction explains that the goal of the book is to exhibit, recognize, preserve, celebrate, and engage with children's picturebook art, as art that is deserving of serious, critical attention in the visual arts world. Blake offers an opportunity for original picturebook sketches and final page art to be displayed as an art form by individual artists with different processes, characters and styles. The book includes a chapter for each of 13 illustrators displaying their original artworks, a photo of the illustrator, and commentary by the illustrator that introduces their work and explains how they started to illustrate children's books. Magic Pencil also includes the illustrated essay "A Certain Magic" by children's book editor Joanna Carey. The essay links the contemporary artistry of the exhibition to the accomplished history of British children's book illustration and looks ahead to the future of children's book illustration as an important and recognized art form.

The British picturebook illustrators featured in the book are: Angela Barrett, Quentin Blake, Lauren Child, Patrick Benson, Raymond Briggs, Sara Fanelli, Stephen Biesty, John Burningham, Michael Foreman, Tony Ross, Posy Simmonds, Emma Chichester Clark, and Charlotte Voake.


Blake, Quentin. Words and Pictures. London: Jonathan Cape, 2000.

England's Children's Laureate Quentin Blake looks back at the past fifty years of his illustrating and writing career. This heavily illustrated and strikingly visual book contains a wide variety of Blake's work, including a range of items, such as: black and white examples of his high school art portfolios; previously unpublished preliminary sketches; early covers and cartoons for the British magazine Punch and his most famous works for children's books. In the accompanying text, he discusses many topics related to his work, including the development of his illustrative technique, his use of colour, and the process of designing an illustrated book. Includes an exhaustive bibliography of Blake's work, including books published in many countries and in several languages.


Bland, David. A History of Book Illustration. London: Faber & Faber, 1969.

Beginning with illustrations from ancient civilizations, this work traces the historical development of book illustration through to the twentieth century. The author discusses the styles and the trends in countries around the world, and comments on notable and representative works and artists, providing examples of various illustrations. A useful resource for the comparative historical study of the developments of book illustration in different countries.


Brown, Marcia. Lotus Seeds: Children, Pictures, and Books. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1985.

The growth and development of artists as illustrators, the necessity of children’s exposure to different art styles and techniques through picturebooks, and the importance of harmony between a book’s concept and its illustrations, are some of the main themes addressed in this work by three-time Caldecott Medal winner, Marcia Brown. The book consists of a collection of speeches, delivered by Brown, at conferences, lectures, and awards presentations between 1949 and 1984. Throughout the book, the author highlights the work of influential illustrators of children’s books, discusses her own methods of preparation for new works, and pays tribute to some key colleagues. This text gives the reader an insider’s perspective on the key issues faced by the field, over a thirty-five year period, as observed by a prominent North American illustrator.


Burlingham, Cynthia. Picturing Childhood: Illustrated Children’s Books from University of California Collections, 1550-1990. Los Angeles: University of California Los Angeles, 1997.

This book was written for an exhibition held at UCLA in 1997. The exhibition featured over four centuries of illustrated books from selected University of California collections. The majority were chosen from the Children's Book Collection in the Department of Special Collections at the University Research Library, UCLA. Others were selected from UCLA's Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts; the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, UCLA; and the Dr. Seuss Collection at the Mandeville Special Collections Library, Geisel Library, University of California, San Diego. The catalogue discusses how society's changing conceptions of childhood shaped children's books; the increasing importance of illustration; the collaboration between the writer and the illustrator; traditional stories interpreted variously at different times and by different cultures. The book includes mostly black and white illustrations with some in colour. Includes bibliography.


Cianciolo, Patricia. Illustrations in Children's Books. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown, 1970.

This is the first edition of Cianciolo's monograph that is part of the series Literature for Children edited by Pose Lamb. The series is aimed primarily at elementary school teachers, and, therefore, the purpose of this book is to provide primary grade educators with a tool to select appropriate reading materials for use in their classrooms, but school librarians are also a target audience of the monograph. Cianciolo discusses the types of illustrated book that are appropriate for young readers, the artistic styles that make an illustrated book attractive to children, the media types and techniques best suited for illustrated books and the ways such books can be best used in a classroom setting. Each of the four chapters of the monograph gives many examples of pertinent books and is accompanied by sample illustrations and a detailed bibliography.


Cianciolo, Patricia. Illustrations in Children’s Books. 2d ed. Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Company
Publishers, 1976.

This book was written as part of the series Literature for Children, designed to assist school teachers in designing and implementing an effective literature program for children in the elementary grades. Among the topics Cianciolo addresses are the power of illustrations to provide historical perspective, and to give readers insight into both the illustrators’ craft and styles of art. She also attempts to increase appreciation and enthusiasm among teachers for illustrated books. The text is divided into four major sections reflecting those topics: appraisal of illustrations for different types of illustrated and picturebooks; the necessity of diversity in illustration; criteria used to determine quality in illustration, styles of art, media and techniques of illustrators; and, use of illustrations in schools, with an emphasis on the importance of visual literacy as a major educational objective. Cianciolo makes use of the relevant works of numerous artists to illustrate her arguments. The book concludes with an extensive, briefly-annotated bibliography, lists of award winners, and professional references.


Cianciolo, Patricia J. Picture Books for Children. 3rd ed. Chicago: American Library Association, 1990.

The author has significantly expanded on the previous two editions of this book by not only analyzing the contemporary output of illustrated children's books up until 1989, but also by including in her monograph an extensive annotated bibliography of that output. The book is intended for teachers, librarians and parents interested in selecting appropriate reading material for young people. The book's first part discusses trends noticeable in the publication of children's books in the United States and indicates selection criteria to be considered when choosing such material for inclusion in a collection. The second part provides information on specific books to be considered for selection, including the age group for which these books are recommended. This annotated bibliography, which also contains illustrated examples of discussed titles, is divided into four subject categories (Me and My Family, Other People, The World I Live In and The Imaginative World) and examines fiction, non-fiction, poetry, and fairy tales. A preface by the author and an index are included.


Cianciolo, Patricia J. Picture Books for Children. 4th ed. Chicago and London: American Library Association, 1997.

This expanded edition of Picture Books for Children by Cianciolo, a professor in children’s literature, is intended as a resource guide and reference tool. The introductory chapter examines the picturebook as an art form and explores the current trends, themes, and types of picturebooks being published. Cianciolo focuses on multiculturalism in children’s literature and the importance of representing in picturebooks the “salient shared experiences” of those who identify with a specific ethnic or cultural group. The bulk of the text consists of an annotated bibliography of more than 250 titles, from the 1970s to the publication cutoff date of August, 1996, and ranging from works of poetry and fiction to nonfiction and concept books. The author includes evaluative criteria for the annotations in the book, and while the emphasis is on American titles, Canadian, British, and Australian picturebooks are included, as well as works in translation. Black-and-white reprints from selected picturebooks are interspersed throughout the annotations. Includes suggested resources, and indexed by authors/illustrators and title.


Cotton, Penni. Picture Books Sans Frontieres. Oakhill, England: Trentham Books, 2000.

Aimed at British educators, this book describes the European Picture Book Collection (EPBC) project, which uses European picturebooks to “…help children within the European Community to understand more about each other.” Cotton examines the European influence on the development and evolution of children’s picturebook illustration, and then outlines the process of how the EPBC project took shape and how books included in the collection were evaluated. Using the universal theme of friendship, she further divides the works under three “sub-themes”: friendship in the dark, friendship and responsibility, and friendship and relationships. Each book is analyzed, and selected black-and-white reprints are included, to serve both as examples and for appreciation by the reader in general. Cotton discusses what to look for in examining picturebook illustrations, and offers several activities and lesson plans to help children appreciate and understand themselves and their European neighbours. Finally, Cotton suggests options for using EPBC books in the classroom. Includes bibliography and index.


Doonan, Jane. Looking at Pictures in Picture Books. Lockwood, England: Thimble Press, 1993.

In this resource, Doonan methodically instructs the reader in the various ways pictorial art communicates, using examples to help the reader. The chapter “Close Looking in General” discusses how pictures express and display ideas. “Close Looking in Context” delves into the specific artistic elements and the relationship between pictures and text. Here, the author emphasizes the process of examining the picturebook, with the reader being the “beholder” of the artwork. “Close Looking in Action” examines two picturebooks in depth, providing the reader with an education in the use of artistic techniques used to enhance the pictorial narrative. “Into the Classroom” offers a lesson plan for instructing students in the appreciation of the picturebook form. The book includes a select, annotated recommended reading list, a glossary, and a summary at the end of the book further illustrating the terms in action through the use of examples. Black-and-white reprints from several picturebooks are also helpful in demonstrating salient points regarding abstract elements and artistic style.


Dresang, Eliza. Radical Change: Books for Youth in a Digital Age. New York: Wilson, 1998.

This well-organized book is intended as a resource for librarians and educators for identifying books that reflect the digital world. Dresang sees “radical change” as a conceptual framework for examining the digital age and the influence of electronic media. She lists three types of Radical Change in youth literature: 1) new uses of graphics, and nonlinear arrangement allowing for greater interactivity; 2) a shift in media that allows youth to speak for themselves and reflects multiple perspectives, including previously unheard ones; and 3) the breaking down of barriers by including previously “forbidden” subjects, with an emphasis on young adult literature. Dresang then examines the sense of story in the digital age, and evaluates books using Radical Change principles. Appendices include a recommended reading list and tips on using the concept of radical change in the classroom. Resources for youth and professionals are also listed at the end of each chapter. Although the focus is on young adults, Dresang does review several picturebooks, and analyzes the evolution taking place in children’s literature due to digital design.


Ermoyan, Arpi. Famous American Illustrators. New York: Society of Illustrators, 1997.

Arpi Ermoyan presents a chronological study of the illustrators inducted into the Illustrators Hall of Fame, established in 1958 to recognize excellence in illustration. Each entry is includes a brief biography, a short description of the artist’s work and a beautifully printed full-page illustration. The illustrators are not predominantly children's illustrators. Three children's illustrators have been acknowledged: Winsor McCay, Jessie Wilcox Smith for her stylized, tender but idealized portrayal of children, and Maurice Sendak for his success in children's books such as In the Night Kitchen and Where the Wild Things Are. Illustrators featured have been chosen for a range of work, including album and magazine covers and advertisement illustration.


Evans, Janet, ed. What’s in the Picture? London: Paul Chapman Publishing, 1998.

The text consists of a series of essays by leading writers in the field of child education in the United Kingdom. Collectively, the writers warn against the tendency to dismiss the pictures in picturebooks in favour of a concentration on text. Most of the authors stress that successful picturebooks cannot be “read” without due consideration of both elements since they complement one another. The various articles provide diverse perspectives and practical classroom strategies dealing with: wordless picturebooks; use of illustrations by emerging readers to derive meaning; use of picturebooks with ESL students; challenges to character stereotypes found in current picturebooks; and, development of visual literacy in young readers. These articles often draw on specific studies, scenarios, and classroom conversations to illustrate particular theories or opinions. The text stresses that children must be taught to decipher the visual cues provided in illustrations to help them learn to read, and is designed to bring this important issue to the awareness of students, educators, and others who use picturebooks with young readers.


Feaver, William. When We Were Young: Two Centuries of Children’s Book Illustration. London:Thames and Hudson; London: Holt, Reinhardt and Winston, 1977.

In this brief volume, the author presents a 200-year history of the development of books and book illustration for children. Beginning in the early nineteenth century and ending in 1950, Feaver draws attention to the ever-changing concepts and ideologies surrounding children and childhood, and the artistic responses by illustrators of children’s books to the prevalent concepts and theories of their times. He also discusses contemporary popular culture, and the growth of illustration out of the graphics design industry. Major figures in children’s book illustration, from Thomas Bewick to Arthur Rackham and beyond, are discussed in relation to their own contributions and to their influence on later artists. The author ends with a detailed list of illustrators, corresponding to the preceding 108 colour and black-and-white plates that make up the majority of the book. Each entry records the artist’s name, dates, title of the work, type of illustration, and a short bibliographic note. This text provides a brief overview on the evolution of children’s materials, with a clear focus on the illustrations themselves.


Genette, Gérard. Paratexts: Thresholds of Interpretation. Translated by Jane E. Lewin. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Originally published as Seuils (Paris: Seuil, 1987).

As part of the Cambridge Literature, Culture, Theory Series, Jane E. Lewin translates French literary theorist, Gérard Genette's, Seuils into English for the first time. Addressing academics and literary theorists, Lewin replicates the "humor and richness of illustration" that punctuates Genette's signature style, often adding clarification for English readers when the examples given are particular to French literary canon. True to the title, various different paratextual literary conventions (from those included with the text to those that occur outside the scope of the text) are covered in depth. Chapters include: the publisher's peritext; the name of the author; titles; the please-insert; dedications and inscriptions; epigraphs. Chapters are also dedicated to epistlatory communications that surround texts, preface types, alternative title types, notes, and the public and private writings, interviews, reviews, etc. that contextualize texts. Includes a forward by series editor, Richard Macksey of John Hopkins University.


Goldsmith, Evelyn. Research into Illustration: An Approach and a Review. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Written as part of the author’s postgraduate studies, this book focuses on the role of illustration in the teaching of reading. The text brings together existing research on the topic, from various academic disciplines, up to 1984. The first of the book’s three sections discusses general factors affecting the inclusion of illustrations in books. The second section examines the twelve components of the author’s analytical model, developed to facilitate critical evaluation of the comprehensibility of illustrations, and much of the previous relevant research. The third section discusses recurrent themes identified by the author through her research, as well as aspects that might be considered for future study. A list of figures at the front of the book and an index at the end help readers to navigate the text. This book, a highly scholarly work, is an invaluable reference tool for any researcher studying this topic.


Graham, Judith. Pictures on the Page. Sheffield: National Association for the Teaching of English, 1990.

The author, argues that picturebooks are a critical factor in teaching children to visualize a story and to engage in the act of reading. By elucidating the role played by illustrations in developing the character, setting, narrative structure and theme of the story, she rejects the notion advanced in traditional reading schemes that pictures prohibit children from understanding the written text. Drawing from a range of contemporary illustrated children's books, the author advocates the use of picturebooks in schools to help struggling readers become acquainted with literary conventions and thereby become fluent readers. A bibliography of children's books and a bibliography of academic books and articles are included.


Higonnet, Anne. Pictures of Innocence: The History and Crisis of Ideal Childhood. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998.

In this history of the visual representation of childhood in the Western world intended for an academic audience, art historian Anne Higonnet explores how artistic, personal, and commercial images of children have changed since the 17th century. Her knowledge of both art history and artistic process informs her examination of how definitions of childhood have been reflected in and propagated by images. Images range from the innocence of the Romantic child of the 18th and 19th centuries to what Higonnet calls the Knowing child of the late 20th century. Higonnet discusses artistic and commercial paintings and photographs of children, many of which are reproduced in the book in colour and black and white.


Hodnett, Edward. Five Centuries of English Book Illustration. Aldershot, England: Scholar Press, 1988.

Hodnett offers a critical account of literary illustration, covering the fifteenth to the twentieth centuries. He provides essential background information for that period, and reviews the important innovations or trends in illustration and publishing, influential figures and books of the century and contemporary criticisms, and the common media employed or subject illustrated by the artist. Includes a selective list of illustrators and illustrated books, arranged chronologically.


Hodnett, Edward. Image and Text: Studies in the Illustration of English Literature. London: Scholar Press, 1982.

The interdependent relationship between text and pictures in illustrated books is the central focus of this resource. Hodnett is particularly interested in various illustrations of classic English literature, including works of Shakespeare, William Blake, Dickens, Milton and Carroll. He provides not only a biographical account of each illustrator under discussion, but also gives information on the illustrators’ creative processes and discusses praise and criticism of the works.


Horn Book and Association for Library Service to Children. Newbery and Caldecott Medal Books, 1986-2000: A Comprehensive Guide to the Winners. Chicago & London: American Library Association, 2001.

Continuing the goals of its predecessors (see entries below under editor Kingman), this guide compiles the acceptance speeches of the winners of the Newbery and the Caldecott Medals from 1986 to 2000. The Horn Book and Booklist reviews of each winner are reproduced, along with the acceptance speeches. In addition, a feature article on each winner, often written by another highly respected children’s author or illustrator, provides biographical information. Also included are general discussions of the Newbery and the Caldecott winners and a review of the best of children's books published during this period.


Horne, Alan J. The Dictionary of 20th Century British Book Illustrators. Woodbridge, England: Antique Collectors’ Club, 1994.

This dictionary contains a comprehensive directory to the British talents in book illustration from 1915 to 1985. Information on individual illustrators includes a brief biography, the artist’s style of illustration, a list of books illustrated (and written), the names of exhibitions in which the illustrator’s work has appeared, works consulted, and occasionally an example of the artist’s illustration. The introduction provides a short summary of the trends and the major events in book illustration in Britain, with a section on children’s book illustration.


Howells, Richard. Visual Culture. Cambridge: Polity Press; Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2003.

This resource seeks to increase visual literacy with an introduction to the basic concepts of visual theory, including how meaning is both made and transmitted in an increasingly visual world. It is designed to introduce students to the analysis of all visual media, from fixed, two-dimensional texts to complex, multimedia forms. Howells examines classic theories of visual analysis and the benefits and disadvantages of each in relation to the specific media, and then brings all approaches together under a broad overall strategy for visual analysis. Each chapter concludes with a section of recommendations for further study. Includes illustrations, bibliographical references, and index.


Hurlimann, Bettina. Picture-Book World. Oxford: Oxford University Press/World, 1967.

Translated from German by Brian W. Alderson, this text offers a unique comparison of picturebooks from across around the world – 24 countries in total. Focusing on the picturebook “artist”, Hurlimann reviews picturebooks first by country, then thematically, comparing and contrasting how themes such as animals, rhyme, and seasons are used by artists from different countries. This 1967 publication was written to demonstrate the variety that existed in children’s book illustration in books published post-World War II. While the book does generalize the cultures represented (only books from China, Hong Kong, India and Japan are listed under “Asia”) and others (South America and Australia) are left out, this is acknowledged by Hurlimann. Reprints, many in colour and full-page, offer the reader access to illustrations by artists they may not have the opportunity to view otherwise. Includes a bio-bibliographical supplement, by Elisabeth Waldemann, on artists featured in the book, and suggested reading and resources. Given the political changes since its publication, this resource provides a unique perspective on the evolution of illustration in children’s picturebooks internationally.


Jacques, Robin. Illustrators at Work. London: Studio Books, 1963.

In the introduction, British author and illustrator Robin Jacques examines the English illustrative tradition, focusing on illustrators such as Tenniel, Greenaway, and Cruikshank. He reviews reproduction methods for illustration up to the 1960s, the process of planning and creating a black-and-white illustration, and personal accounts by ten illustrators of the processes they used in creating their illustrations. A commentary on each artist by Jacques follows the artist's discussion. In addition, Jacques provides brief biographies of 47 other illustrators, including date and place of birth, training, artistic influences, books and articles featuring the artist's illustration, and samples of the artist’s work. The final chapters provide career information on illustration, and Jacques’ perspective on the future of illustration. This text is useful as an introduction to British illustrators and the state of illustration in the early 1960s. Includes index.


Katz, Bill, ed. A History of Book Illustration: 29 Points of View. Metuchen, N.J., and London: Scarecrow Press, 1994.

This collection of scholarly articles reviews the development and evolution of illustration, or as stated by editor Katz, the history of illustration from “cave to child.” Arranged chronologically, the history of illustration is divided into five parts, from cave art to illuminated manuscripts, to the advent of printing and its advancement from woodcuts to modern technology. In the final section, Katz offers a history of children’s illustrated books, which he argues has been the “real home” of illustrators for most of the twentieth century. Within this last section, the articles discuss morality and emblems in eighteenth-century children’s books, the development of the genre through the Victorian period, a biography of Beatrix Potter, and an analysis of children’s responses to illustration. The variety of the contributors’ points of view and backgrounds, such as art history, education and anthropology, create an understanding of the progression of illustration as an art form over time. Most articles are referenced, and the book includes a selected, annotated bibliography on the history of illustration.


Kiefer, Barbara. The Potential of Picturebooks: From Visual Literacy to Aesthetic Understanding. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Merrill/Prentice Hall, 1995.

The text is organized thematically into three interdependent sections: children and picturebooks; the art of the picturebook; and picturebooks in the classroom. Part one looks at the definition of a picturebook and the concept of visual literacy, as well as the child’s response to picturebooks and the role of the teacher in soliciting response. Part two focuses on the history of the picturebook form, including advances in technology; several illustrators’ views of the process of creating a picturebook; and using artistic elements and style as criteria for evaluating picturebooks. Part three provides classroom activities based on concepts from the earlier sections. While the text is aimed at educators, Kiefer’s use of plain language makes the concepts discussed accessible to the layperson. A small selection of colour reprints is referred to throughout the book. Includes glossary, index, and bibliographies on exploring the art of picturebooks, picturebooks for older students, and references used in the text.


Kingman, Lee, Joanna Foster, and Ruth Giles Lontoft, comps. Illustrators of Children’s Books, 1957-1966. Boston: Horn Book, 1968.

The third book in the Illustrators of Children’s Books series, this work follows the same format and style as the previous two volumes. Part I includes four essays that discuss such themes as: the explosion in quantity and quality in illustrated children’s books in the period under discussion and an analysis of successes and failures; the restlessness in the fine arts community in terms of attitudes, concepts, new techniques, and new media, and the resulting transfer of some artists to the field of illustration; and, problems confronted by the artist in the creation of book illustrations. The final essay celebrates the centenary of Beatrix Potter. Part II consists of the biographies of illustrators active in the period, as in prior volumes. Two bibliographies, one of the illustrators active, the second of authors, comprises Part III, while a list of Kate Greenaway Medal winners, a list of artists represented by illustrations, and an index make up the appendices in Part IV.


Kingman, Lee, Grace Allen Hogarth, and Harriet Quimby. Illustrators of Children's Books, 1967-1976. Boston: Horn Book, 1978.

This third supplement in the Horn Book series on children's book illustrators covers the years 1967 to 1976. The book is divided into four sections and contains contributions from people involved in various aspects of the children's book world. Part I is entitled "A Decade of Illustration in Children's Books" with two articles focusing on the trends and general observations about illustration during the decade and two articles focusing on the international scene of European and Japanese illustration. Examples of artists' works are presented mainly in black and white with a section of colour plates. Part II contains short biographies of illustrators active during the decade and Part III presents selective bibliographies of both illustrators and authors active during 1967-1976. The appendices in Part IV contain many resources, including bibliographies for articles from Part I; a list of artists represented by illustrations; an index to the introduction and to the texts of Parts I, II and III; and a cumulative index to the bibliographies and iographies of Volumes I, II, III, and IV in the series.


Kingman, Lee, ed. The Illustrator's Notebook. Boston: Horn Book, 1978.

American Lee Kingman has compiled 37 insightful articles on the history and philosophy of illustration, individual illustrators, and their styles and techniques. The book consists of excerpted notes, addresses, essays, and lectures from articles formerly published in Horn Book Magazine. This compilation provides context for the ideas, lives, and philosophies of artists in the children's book field, and technical information about illustration. The text discusses the philosophy, standards, and history of illustration, place in the arts, and the place of illustration in communication and the arts. This resource contains over 100 illustrations in colour and black and white.


Kingman, Lee, ed. Newbery and Caldecott Medal Books, 1956-1965. Boston: Horn Book, 1965.

Continuing from Caldecott Medal Books, 1938-1957, by Bertha Mahoney Miller and Elinor Whitney Field, this book contains the acceptance speeches of both the Newbery and the Caldecott Medal winners for the period. These two prestigious awards are given by the American Library Association to the author and the illustrator of the best written and best illustrated book of the year. The speeches provide insight into the creative processes of the winning authors and illustrators. In addition, a biography of the winner, a plot summary of the winning book, and an excerpt or a sample illustration are included for each entry. Also featured is an article on the origins of the two medals.


Kingman, Lee, ed. Newbery and Caldecott Medal Books, 1966-1975. Boston: Horn Book, 1975.

Covering the years 1966 to 1975, this book continues the goals of its predecessors in compiling the acceptance speeches of the winners of the Newbery and the Caldecott Medals. Readers learn much about the authors and illustrators, such as their backgrounds, philosophies on writing and illustration, and their perspectives on children. Three additional essays are included, on the topics of picturebooks, their illustrations, and an overview of the decade in children's books.


Kingman, Lee, ed. Newbery and Caldecott Medal Books, 1976-1985. Boston: Horn Book, 1986.

The acceptance speeches of the winners of the Newbery and Caldecott Medals from 1976 to 1985 are included in this book, from which the readers can learn about the passion of the winning authors and artists for writing and illustrating for children. Also included in this volume is a general discussion of the Newbery and the Caldecott winners and of children's books published from 1976 to 1985.


Klemin, Diana, The Art of Art for Children's Books: A Contemporary Survey. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1966.

This book gives examples of the work of sixty-seven established illustrators of contemporary children's books. It includes very brief details on style, technique, and medium. Klemin limits her descriptions of the books to basic categories – line, pencil or wash drawings, woodcut, and lithograph. The illustrations included are mostly in black and white. However, works by Edward Ardizzone, Nancy E. Burkert, Celestino Piatti, Symeon Shimin, Leo Lionni, Maurice Sendak, and Leonard Weisgard are in colour. Includes introduction, table of contents, bibliography and index. Klemin writes that the artists were chosen because they are “creative persons who are masters of technique, can grasp the meaning of a book, are devoted to the art of illustration, and understand its relation to the story.”


Klemin, Diana. The Illustrated Book: Its Art and Craft. New York: Bramhall House, 1970.

A contemporary survey with examples and commentary on the work of seventy-four artists. Similar to The Art of Art for Children’s Books, except that the author does not limit herself to children’s illustrations. This book gives examples of the work of established children’s illustrators such as Ludwig Bemelmans, Bernarda Bryson, and artists who worked for adult readers. Contains commentary on trends in book illustration and the contributions art makes to books. Illustrations mostly in black and white. Includes index and bibliography.


Lacy, Lyn Ellen. Art and Design in Children’s Picture Books: An Analysis of Caldecott Award-Winning Illustrations. Chicago: American Library Association, 1986.

The author begins her analysis of 13 Caldecott award-winning titles by outlining her interest in, and subsequent research into, the Caldecott award. In the first chapter, she focuses on visual literacy as an evaluative tool and explores picturebooks and their origins from fine art. Artistic elements such as line and colour are explained, providing a foundation for later sections. She also provides a discussion of whole book design, prereaders as an audience most receptive to picturebooks, the history of illustration, the role of the illustrator as artist, printing technology, and the publisher’s role. Each subsequent chapter examines winners with regard to specific artistic elements, including an introduction to each artist and book being discussed, a discussion of book design, a section on art appreciation and an analysis of the work with respect to the specific artistic element under review. Lacy also suggests classroom activities and recommends other Caldecott winners for further study. Glossary and index by title and artist are included.


Lanes, Selma G. The Art of Maurice Sendak. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc, 1980.

The Art of Maurice Sendak is an engaging biography of the great American writer and illustrator, detailing his life story along with discussion of his art and it progression. It is beautifully and generously illustrated with both black and white and colour examples of Sendak's work. Published in 1980, the book traces his life, art, and influences from his childhood in Brooklyn in the 1930s to the height of his success in the late 1960s, with the publication of two of his most celebrated and controversial books, Where the Wild Things Are and In the Night Kitchen, through to the late 1970s. Quotes from Sendak himself, along with those of his friends and collaborators, give the reader the opportunity to understand the process and ideas behind his work. Includes an index and a chronological listing of books featuring Sendak's work.


Lewis, David. Reading Contemporary Picturebooks: Picturing Text. London, New York: Routledge/Falmer, 2001.

British picturebook scholar David Lewis explores the nature of picturebooks as a whole object and the reader's creation of meaning while reading a picturebook. He analyzes much of the recent scholarly and theoretical work done in this area by examining winners of the British Emil Award for the qualities and characteristics outlined in each of the theories. His own theoretical approach to studying picturebooks focuses on the reader's experience (especially children's experience) and how meaning is created during the process of reading and looking at the picturebook. This approach relies heavily on philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein's theories on the process of how objects possess meaning for people. This resource on the theoretical analysis of picturebooks includes a glossary, two appendices and two bibliographies, one of theoretical and historical sources, the other for the picturebooks analyzed.


MacCann, Donnarae and Olga Richard. The Child’s First Books: A Critical Study of Pictures and Texts. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1973.

This book fuses literary and art criticism of contemporary children’s books. The authors discuss picturebooks as publications in which the story line is largely presented through illustrations. On illustration, it covers chapters on historical perspective, stereotypes in illustration, graphic elements, and outstanding contemporary illustrators. It gives short biographies with a discussion of the influences on, and styles of, illustrators. Reproductions are mostly in black and white. Includes table of contents, preface, index ,and list of books mentioned in the study.


Mahony, Bertha E., Louise Payson Latimer, and Beulah Folmsbee, comps. Illustrators of Children's Books, 1744-1945. Boston: Horn Book, 1947.

Rising from the influential The Horn Book Magazine, this text presents comprehensive chapters on the history and development of illustrated books for children, in Europe and America, since the time of publisher John Newbery. A collection of ten essays, each a chapter in the evolution of children's book illustration, comprises Part I. The author of each notes the work of influential and innovative artists and publishers, and discusses contemporary techniques in graphic reproduction. Part II is an alphabetic list containing over 250 biographies of illustrators living at the time of publication. Birth dates, training, career highlights, preferred techniques, current place of residence, and source of biographical information are included in most entries. Two extensive bibliographies, one of illustrators, the other of authors, and their works constitute Part III, while the final section contains appendices of sources consulted, notes and references, and two indices. More than 250 black-and-white illustrations are sprinkled throughout all sections of the book. Written at a layman's level, this work is an excellent starting point for anyone interested in further study of illustrated children's materials.


Marantz, Kenneth, and Sylvia Marantz. Creating Picturebooks: Interviews with Editors, Art Directors, Reviewers, Booksellers, Professors, Librarians and Showcasers. Jefferson, N.C. and London: McFarland, 1997.

Americans Kenneth Marantz, a professor of art education, and Sylvia Marantz, art educator and teacher-librarian, have compiled a collection of interviews with individuals involved in the process of editing, printing, and marketing picturebooks. They have been attentive in providing a range of perspectives, and have included large and small British and American publishing houses. The interviews show how publishers seek to engage new markets and prospective buyers with new and unique materials, while at the same time they try to retain a picturebook’s integrity. Many of the interviews comment on the strong influence of technology on the publishing and marketing of children's picturebooks, particularly on the production process. This valuable resource will be of interest to readers curious about the process by which children's literature is made available, and the influence of people other than the illustrator/author on the final artistic work.


Marantz, Sylvia, and Kenneth Marantz. The Art of Children's Picturebooks: A Selective Reference Guide. New York: Garland, 1988.

This bibliography provides access to books, articles and other materials on the history of children's picturebooks, development and criticism of children's books, artists' anthologies, and collections. Books and articles are organized by topic, and audiovisual materials focusing on particular artists, guides and aids for research, and collections/repositories of materials on picturebooks and their creators are separately listed in a final section. This resource is particularly useful for authors, illustrators, and students of children’s picturebook illustration. Indexed separately by artist, title and author/editor/compiler.


Marantz, Sylvia, and Kenneth Marantz. Artists of the Page: Interviews with Children's Book Illustrators. Jefferson, N.C. and London: McFarland, 1992.

The authors interview 31 predominantly British illustrators to aid readers interested in gaining a better understanding of the wide range of backgrounds and artistic styles that exist among illustrators of children’s books. Each interview is prefaced by a short description of the illustrator's home or workspace and includes a sampling of works in print up to 1992. In the interviews, the illustrators discuss their schooling, influences on their work, intended audience, subject matter, and for illustrators such as Molly Bang and Carole Byard, the often-frustrating experience of publishing. Most of the interviews are no longer than ten pages. This provides a good introduction to understanding illustration from an artist’s perspective.


Marantz, Sylvia, and Kenneth Marantz. Multicultural Picturebooks: Art for Understanding Others. Worthington, Ohio: Linworth, 1997.

This bibliography of English language picturebooks reflects the history and contemporary spiritual condition of a wide number of world cultures. The authors have selected books with both a strong storyline and artistic competence, a strong text/illustration dynamic, and featuring characteristics of the cultural group in the illustrations. The titles are separated into geographical regions including: Asia and the Pacific, Middle East and North Africa, Central and South Africa, The Caribbean and Latin America, Aboriginal and Native cultures in North America, and Europe. Within each region are original folk tales and contemporary cultural stories. The final section includes multicultural and cross-cultural experiences. Where possible, immigration experiences to the United States from other countries have been included. A useful selection tool for developing children's multicultural literature programs in school and public libraries.


Marantz, Sylvia S. Picture Books for Looking and Learning: Awakening Visual Perceptions Through the Art of Children's Books. Westport, Connecticut: Oryx Press, 1992.

American picturebook columnist and reviewer, Sylvia Marantz, creates a practical guide designed to meet the needs of teachers and librarians in understanding illustration and awakening children's visual perceptions. The guide contains 43 award-winning books organized according to grade level, including, for each item, a synopsis, a page-to-page description, discussion of illustrations, page turning cues, activities, and comparisons to similar books. A glossary of the various media used by illustrators and an analysis of the picturebook elements are included. As the resource does not contain illustrations, it is best used as a companion to the profiled books.


Marcus, Leonard S. A Caldecott Celebration: Six Artists Share Their Paths to the Caldecott Medal. Walker. 1998.

In celebration of the 60th anniversary of the Caldecott Medal, Leonard Marcus invites the reader to participate in the journey that six artists took on their road to receiving it. The six winning titles are Robert McCloskey's Make Way for Ducklings, Marcia Brown's version of Cinderella, Maurice Sendak's Where the Wild Things Are, William Steig's Sylvester and the Magic Pebble, Chris Van Allsburg's Jumanji and David Weisner's Tuesday. Each award-winning author is showcased with a chapter devoted to their early beginnings as artists, the inspirations behind their work and the succession of sketches that lead to their illustrations of the award winning material. How each of these author-artists became involved with picturebooks and the necessary partnership with their editors and publishers is a main focus throughout the book, highlighting that the creation of picturebooks is a collaborative process. Each chapter incorporates colour and image, draft work, sketches and final pieces. An index, a glossary and a bibliography of all the Caldecott Medal winners are also included, making this an excellent resource for children and adults alike who are interested in illustration and author-artists in particular.


Marcus, Leonard S. Show Me a Story! Why Picture Books Matter: Conversations with 21 of the World's Most Celebrated Illustrators. Somerville, MA: Candlewick, 2012.

Show Me a Story! is a collection of 21 interviews with children's picturebook illustrators conducted by Leonard S. Marcus, a renowned children's literature historian and critic. Beginning with a brief history of picture books, Marcus sets out to discover what makes an artist choose to become an illustrator of children's picture books. The interviews, which took place over the past two decades, are artfully conducted and build a story that links children's illustrators’ lives to their stories and images and ultimately their readership. Each interview is prefaced by a quote from that illustrator, an overview of their illustration style, leading into a short biography, how Marcus knows them, and often a depiction of their home or workspace. The illustrators discuss their childhood stories, their adult lives and their path into the profession of children's book illustration. They discuss their schooling, influences on their work, their art style and how it developed, and perhaps most importantly why they continue to illustrate children's picture books. Most of the interviews are no longer than twelve pages. This collection provides a wonderful window into the wide range of personalities, backgrounds and artistic styles that exist among illustrators of children’s books.


Marcus, Leonard S., and Claire B. Counihan. Side by Side: Five Favorite Picture-book Teams Go to Work. New York: Walker, 2001.

In Side by Side: Five Favorite Picture-book Teams Go to Work, Leonard Marcus, children's literature historian and critic, describes the creative collaborative process of five author-illustrator (and in Leach's case, designer) teams (Arthur Yorinks and Richard Egielski, Alice and Martin Provensen, Julius Lester and Jerry Pinkney, Joanna Cole and Bruce Degen, and Jon Scieszka, Lane Smith, and Molly Leach). The book relates engaging stories about the teams and makes the creative collaboration process accessible to young people. Each chapter focuses on one book produced by a team and discusses how the writer and artist came together, includes interesting details about these creative individuals and their books, and ends with a bibliography of books created by the team. Illustrations include thumbnail sketches, manuscript notes, dummy pages, and finished pages. Side by Side offers useful insights into the inner workings of bookmaking, and generates appreciation for the energy and ingenuity it takes to create a picturebook.


Martin, Douglas. The Telling Line: Essays on Fifteen Contemporary Book Illustrators. London: Julia MacRae, 1989.

Fifteen informative and detailed essays on various illustrators, accompanied by many samples of their illustrations, shed light on the approach, the views, and the achievements of distinguished artists in Britain. Together they provide an outlook on the wide spectrum of styles found in the field of book illustration. The author has also included a discussion of the state of book illustration and publication in the post-war period, noting important movements and organizations that advocate and sustain culture and arts.


Meyer, Susan E. America’s Great Illustrators. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1978.

The ten most influential American illustrators who “presided over the public and had a crucial role in giving the cultural appetites of the day” have been selected by the author to represent the high standards that have been established for future illustrators. The list includes several illustrators for children, and features specifically: Howard Pyle, N.C. Wyeth, Frederic Remington, Maxfield Parrish, J.C. Leyendecker, Norman Rockwell, Charles Dana Gibson, Howard Chandler Christy, James Montgomery Flagg, and John Held, Jr. Many examples of the artists’ works accompany the accounts of their artistic styles, opinions, preferences and personalities, increasing the reader’s familiarity with the artists and their influences on American book illustration.


Meyer, Susan E. A Treasury of the Great Children's Book Illustrators. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1983.

In this work, American art critic Susan E. Meyer, presents 13 classic children's book illustrators, whose work dates from the early 1800s until the mid-1900s, and who represent the best in both England and America. The 13 illustrators profiled are Edward Lear, John Tenniel, Walter Crane, Randolph Caldecott, Kate Greenaway, Beatrix Potter, Ernest H. Shepard, Arthur Rackham, Edmund Dulac, Kay Nielsen, Howard Pyle, N.C. Wyeth, and W.W. Denslow. The introduction provides a brief overview and history covering the development of the children's illustrated book in both England and American. For each illustrator, Meyer provides biographical information and a discussion of the artist's work and its impact. Several full colour plates along with many black and white illustrations are shown as examples of each artist's work. Bibliography and index included.



Miller, Bertha Mahony, and Elinor Whitney Field, eds. Caldecott Medal Books, 1938-1957. Boston: Horn Book, 1957.

The Caldecott Medal is awarded annually to the best illustrated picturebook published in the United States. This publication consists of the acceptance speeches of the artists who have won this prestigious medal from 1938 to 1957, which previously appeared in the Horn Book Magazine. From these speeches, readers learn about the influences in the illustrators’ lives, the reasons for their decision to become illustrators, and their views on children’s books and on the art of illustration. In addition to the acceptance papers, there is a short biographical or autobiographical essay on each winner, along with a sample illustration from the winning picturebook. Includes an introductory essay about Randolph Caldecott, and an essay on picturebooks and the Caldecott Medal.


Miller, Bertha Mahony, Ruth Hill Viguers, and Marcia Dalphin, comps. Illustrators of Children's Books, 1946-1956. Boston: Horn Book, 1958.

This book was conceived and written as a follow-up to the earlier Illustrators of Children's Books, 1744- 1945. Consequently, it follows the same format and style as that volume with essays in Part I, biographies of working illustrators of the period, and bibliographies of illustrators and authors and their works. Only three essays are included in Part I of this text, each written by a noted illustrator and graphic arts practitioner. The essays focus on the progress made in the field for the period under consideration, and note trends and tendencies in picturebook design and production in both the United States and abroad. As with its earlier companion volume, this book is important for its comprehensive coverage of illustrated materials for juveniles. Anyone who uses books with children would find it a valuable resource.


Muir, Marcie. A History of Australian Children's Book Illustration. Melbourne, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.

This book chronicles the history and development of illustration in Australian children's books from the first English books published dealing with Australia in the late 1700s through to the 1970s. It contains many black and white illustrations with several full colour plates, a bibliography of other resources on Australian children's books, and a list of sources for the illustrations printed. A good, thorough introduction to the subject.


Nikolajeva, Maria, and Carole Scott. How Picturebooks Work. New York: Garland, 2001.

The authors join a growing number of scholars studying the relationship that exists between text and image in children's picturebooks. Drawing on children's illustrated books internationally, the authors examine the interplay between text and illustration, using renowned authors and illustrators as the basis for their critical analysis. With numerous black-and-white illustrations, the authors arm readers with a range of methods with which to decode picturebooks. Especially helpful is the thorough examination of other critical analyses of illustrated children's literature, and the vocabulary used in these analyses. Nikolajeva and Scott build on this terminology, and further develop a vocabulary based on word/image interactions in books, on a continuum from the wordless book to the pictureless book. This thorough and comprehensive tool provides a foundation for understanding and critiquing children's picturebooks.


Nodelman, Perry. Words About Pictures: The Narrative Art of Children's Picture Books. Athens: University of Georgia Press, c1988.

The main purpose of picturebooks, Nodelman contends, is to communicate information that assists in the telling of stories, rather than to please aesthetically. The images within such books must explain one another, and must define and amplify the text. This book explores the narrative techniques that picturebook illustrators employ to accomplish these objectives, and is, thus, divided into chapters focusing on such themes as: format and design; meanings contained within different styles; relationships between visual objects; relationships between pictures and words; rhythms in picturebook narratives; and, animated illustrations, among others. Leaving pedagogical issues aside, the author focuses on the conditions under which meaning is communicated through the qualities contained in the pictures and texts alone. Throughout the work, Nodelman makes frequent references to well known and easily available picturebooks. This comprehensive scholarly work concludes with a discussion on the place of picturebooks in children's literature.


Pierpoint Morgan Library. Early Children's Books and Their Illustration. Boston: David Goldine, 1975.

The Pierpoint Morgan Library in New York has one of the most important collections of early children's books in America. The focus of the collection is primarily European, from third century editions of Aesop's Fables to classics of the early twentieth century. This catalogue presents many of the rare and classic works of children's literature found in the collection. It features sections on different book types, specific collections, specific titles, or prominent authors represented in the collection. Black and white illustrations along with several colour plates show many of the works described and annotated in the text. Includes bibliography and index.


Pitz, Henry C. Illustrating Children's Books: History, Technique, Production. New York: Watson-Guptill, 1963.

American author and illustrator Henry Pitz explores the development of children's book illustration in England and in the United States, up to the 1960s. In Part One, Pitz provides a detailed analysis of changing styles of illustration and explains how innovations in printing have influenced both the sale of illustrated books and their popularity. Part Two is an examination of the techniques of illustration, analyzed in the context of reader development, as Pitz argues there is a relationship between age and illustration. Pitz also discusses the artistic elements of a picturebook, including jacket, casing, end papers, and front matter, and provides detail of the production processes used at the time of publication. In the final section, Pitz takes readers through the then-contemporary process of illustrating a picture book, from obtaining an assignment to the final product. Includes a rich sampling of illustrations found in children's books.


Ryder, John. Artists of a Certain Line: A Selection of Illustrations for Children’s Books. London: Bodley Head, 1960.

This short book gives examples of the works of forty-one, mostly British, illustrators of contemporary children's books. Includes drawings and short biographies of the artists, with information about their origins, education, interests, and influences. Discusses works of such artists as Brian Wildsmith, Robin Jacques, and Raymond Briggs. Drawings are in black and white. Includes table of contents, introduction, and postscript. Artists chosen from author's reading of established books, articles, and reviews on subject of children's illustration.


Schwarcz, Joseph H., and Chava Schwarz. The Picturebook Comes of Age: Looking at Childhood Through the Art of Illustration. Chicago and London :American Library Association, 1991.

The authors provide a critical analysis of the recurring themes in children's lives and in international children's literature. They argue that the picturebook can influence children's perceptions of the world around them, and can serve to help children personalize and comprehend difficult and complex ideas and relationships. Within each section, a number of children's books are discussed, exemplifying a particular theme and accompanied by black-and-white reprints. The books reviewed are not limited by language or country, giving an international flavour to the analysis. While the first section examines personal issues such as familial relationships and identity, the second section shifts to the child’s larger social sphere. Here the authors examine picturebooks providing a social criticism of war, poverty, pollution and death, drawing a common theme of children as active participants in social change. The authors emphasize the use of picturebooks in increasing children's awareness of the world, and critique the success of picturebook illustrators’ and authors' realistic, humorous, sardonic, lyrical, and sometimes fantastic approaches to complex ideas that socialize children into culture.


Schwarcz, Joseph. Ways of the Illustrator: Visual Communication in Children's Literature. Chicago: American Library Association, 1982.

Schwarcz describes the illustration of children's picturebooks as a communicative expression of ideas. He begins with a critical introduction to the basic elements of illustrations, including colour, line, size, shape, and texture. Building on this foundation, Schwarcz examines how illustrators approach metaphor, landscape, written word, sound, motion, and the passing of time. He then turns his attention to the flexible dynamic between the text and illustration of a children's picturebook, and how the illustrator works with or against the text to create meaning. In the second section, Schwarz explores the emotional relationship that exists between the child reader and the picturebook, arguing that children's literature influences the way children understand and become acquainted with their culture, relationships, and surroundings. Schwarz’s analysis is international in scope, and includes many black-and-white illustrations from the titles he discusses. Includes index of illustrators.


Sendak, Maurice. Caldecott & Co.: Notes on Books and Pictures. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1988.

Groundbreaking American picturebook author and illustrator Maurice Sendak presents selections of his writing from the 1950s to the late 1980s on illustration and picturebooks. It is divided into two sections. Part one includes Sendak's critical essays on the creation process, reviews, and biographical essays on influential children's authors and illustrators. Black and white illustrations accompany several of the essays showing examples of each illustrator's style. The second section focuses on Sendak himself. Several of his acceptance speeches are reprinted, including ones for such major awards as the Caldecott and the Hans Christian Andersen awards. Also included are autobiographical essays and Sendak's reflections on his work and influences.


Shulevitz, Uri. Writing with Pictures: How to Write and Illustrate Children's Books. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1985.

In Writing with Pictures, award-winning writer and illustrator Uri Shulevitz outlines the processes of planning and creating an illustrated book. Relying heavily on examples of illustrations and diagrams to show key points, he emphasizes a visual approach to the writing process. From tips on drawing and the readability of pictures to exercises for practicing colour preseparation, Shulevitz details how to create a picturebook. The book is divided into four major sections: "Telling the Story," " Planning the Book," "Creating the Pictures," and "Preparing for Reproduction." Included in the Appendices are a bibliography and advice on finding a publisher.


Sipe, Lawrence R., and Sylvia Pantaleo, eds. Postmodern Picturebooks: Play, Parody, and Self-Referentiality. New York: Routledge, 2008.

This collection of academic essays on postmodernism in picturebooks is part of the Routledge Research in Education series. Edited by Lawrence R. Sipe (University of Pennsylvania) and Sylvia Pantaleo (University of Victoria), this collection includes essays by children's literature, literacy, and information studies scholars from Europe and North America. Of note are: an essay on Radical Change Theory by Eliza T. Dresang; an essay by illustrator Martin Salisbury; and several essays (including the final two by the editors) that interpret the results of picturebook reading exercises and studies done with children. Includes 26 images of picture book illustrations to accompany discussions of picturebooks from different cultures. An extensive reference list for further reading follows each essay.


Smith, Janet Adam. Children's Illustrated Books. London: Collins, 1948.

Janet Adam Smith traces the historical development of children's illustrated books from early woodcuts of the eighteenth century to the picturebooks of the mid-twentieth century. She provides an overview of the themes, media, significant illustrators and authors during this time period. She traces the evolution of children's books used solely for teaching moral and religious guidance, to those that also include enjoyment and amusement for children. Illustrators include William Blake, Edward Lear, Beatrix Potter, George Cruikshank, John Tenniel, Randolph Caldecott, and Kate Greenaway. The book is part of the "Britain in Picture" series, and includes four colour plates and 33 black and white illustrations.


Spitz, Ellen Handler. Inside Picture Books. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.

Ellen Spitz uses her background in applied psychoanalysis and visual arts to explore issues and themes of picturebooks. She challenges the reader to understand and appreciate the psychological complexity of picturebooks, and young readers' responses to them. Spitz considers the relational activity of the adult reading to the child as a transfer of values across generations. Each chapter addresses a different picturebook category, including books on death and loss, bedtime, child misbehavior, and identity. Spitz covers numerous authors, from Beatrix Potter to Maurice Sendak, in all citing 80 books in all.


Stewig, John W. Looking at Picturebooks. Fort Atkinson, Wis.: Highsmith Press, 1995.

This thorough introduction to evaluating and understanding illustration in children's picturebooks serves as a guide for teachers and librarians for selecting and analysing children's picturebooks. As a teaching resource, it is useful in helping children develop skills of critical analysis and observation. Sidebars provide helpful background, definitions, and reference notes, as well as activities for analysing, comparing, and contrasting illustrations. Stewig includes a description of the elements of illustration, namely shape, space, colour, line, proportion, and detail, using illustrations to help explain each concept. Unity, by which an artist combines all parts of the picture in a cohesive whole, Stewig argues, is achieved through balance of a number of factors, and he explores these factors in his chapter on composition. Appendices include an annotated list of resources on art and artists, and a description of picturebook sub-genres with examples of titles. Includes index.


Watson, Victor, and Morag Styles, eds. Talking Pictures: Pictorial Texts and Young Readers. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1996.

This examination of the role of picturebooks as an educational tool to aid in developing literacy draws on a number of contributors with varying backgrounds. Teachers, illustrators, authors, and writers discuss the reactions of children to picturebooks. David Lewis begins with the historical development of the picturebook, crediting the chapbook, toys and games of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as the precursors to contemporary children's picturebooks. Later chapters discuss the complex issues which children's illustrators explore and the sophisticated responses from young readers. Children more readily navigate difficult texts and ideas when their visual literacy skills complement their verbal literacy. In “Spying on Picturebooks with Young Children,” Helen Bromley explores children's ability to recognize artistic styles and intertextual links. Interviews with young children reveal how children interpret themes and ideas in picturebooks, and confirm the ability of young children to grasp difficult subject matter. Includes a short biography of each contributor, and black-and-white illustrations.


Whalley, Joyce Irene. Cobwebs to Catch Flies: Illustrated Books for the Nursery and Schoolroom, 1700-1900. London: Elek, 1974.

Cobwebs to Catch Flies is a survey of illustrated educational books created for children from 1700 until 1900, with the focus being on books used in the home as opposed to school. The survey looks primarily at books published in either England or America, with some examples of works from continental Europe. It begins with a brief overview of the history and development of children's books and illustration and then considers different categories of educational books. The majority of the books discussed are from the collection at the National Art Library in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. Black and white illustrations from early books are included along with several colour plates. An extensive appendix includes: a bibliography divided into two sections, one for resources on the history of children's books and the other for the early works themselves; a list of selected collections of children's books in both Europe and North America; a list of plates; an index of publishers of the early books; and a general index.


Whalley, Joyce Irene and Tessa Rose Chester. A History of Children's Book Illustration. John Murray with the Victoria & Albert Museum. London: 1988.

This British work, based largely on the collections at London's Victoria & Albert Museum, surveys the history of children's book illustration in the English-speaking world, beginning with early editions of Aesop's Fables from the 1600s and continuing until the early 1980s. There is a strong emphasis on the works of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This detailed study of illustration history, techniques, and trends thoroughly presents the time periods surveyed. Appendices include a very detailed bibliography and notes for illustrations used; a list of early publishers; and a chapter entitled "Reproduction Techniques of Book Illustration," which outlines the various methods of reproduction used throughout history.